including corals, ice cores, tree rings, flood deposits, nae and moderate to severe El Nino. Of the 17 El Ninos beach ridges, archeological middens, and soils. But that occurred in this time period, 11 correlate within high-resolution records in corals and ice cores are lim- two years of major layers of clastic laminae, and one ited to the past 2000 years, while longer records are is within three years. The other five severe El Ninos not continuous. during this period occurred within two years of rela- tively minor layers of clastic sediment. The eight se- Sea surface temperatures near this part of Ecuador vere El Ninos of the past 100 years correlate precisely are among the first to warm in the region during the with clastic laminae in the core. onset of an El Nino, when rainfall greatly increases. Since extreme El Nino-driven storms are known to de- In addition to Rodbell, the authors of the Science posit organic and inorganic debris in coastal basins, paper are J. H. Newman, Department of Geology, the scientists analyzed a 9.2-m-long core of sedimen- Union College, Schenectady, New York; G. O. Selt- tary rock obtained in June 1993 from Lake zer, Department of Earth Sciences, Syracuse Univer- Pallacacocha, which is about 75 km from the Pacific sity, Syracuse, New York; D. M. Anderson, National Ocean. These layers of sediment, known as clastic Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Ser- laminae, are made up of fragments of vegetation that vice, NOAA, Boulder, Colorado; M. B. Abbot, De- were washed into the lake from the surrounding land- partment of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, scape during torrential rain storms. Amherst, Massachusetts; and D. B. Enfield, Atlantic The sediment record from 1800 to 1976 A.D. re- Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, veals a close match between the layers of clastic lami- NOAA, Miami, Florida. • K 4 Kluwer Academic Publishers Addison Wesley Longman 101 Philip Dr., Norwell, MA 02061 One Jacob Way, Reading, MA 01867 Telephone: 617-871-6600 Telephone: 617-944-3700 McDonald and Woodward Publishing Cambridge University Press 325 Dorrence Rd„ Granville, OH 43023 40 W. 20 St., New York, NY 10011 Telephone: 1-800-233-8787 Telephone: 800-872-7423 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 49 3
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Mar 1, 1999
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