El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation (S.G. and regional evapotranspiration." Section III is enti- Philander, 1989, 293 pp., $59.50, hardbound, Aca- tled "Approaches to the Estimation of Evapotranspir- demic Press, Inc.). This book summarizes what is ation, " and section IV is "Reports on Group currently known about El Nino, La Nina, and the Discussions." Southern Oscillation, and about the interactions be- Global Climate Change: Human and Natural Influ- tween the oceans and atmosphere that cause this ences (S.F. Singer, ed., 1989, 424 pp., $34.95, phenomenon. It also describes some of the remaining hardbound, Paragon House Publishers). The topics problems in this area of research. Chapters include dealt with in this book are diverse. The atmosphere, 'Th e Southern Oscillation: Variability of the Tropical the hydrosphere, and human and natural influences Atmosphere," "Oceanic Variability in the Tropics," are all discussed in relation to their influence on the "Oceanic Adjustment: I," "Oceanic Adjustment: II," environment. There are 24 chapters, a list of contrib- "Models of the Tropical Atmosphere," and "Inter- utors, a list of figures, a list of tables, and an index. actions between the Ocean and Atmosphere." A Selected Papers on Scattering in the Atmosphere bibliography and index are included. (C.F. Bohren and B.J. Thompson, eds., 1989, 641 pp., $84.00, paperbound, SPIE Optical Engineering Estimation of Area! Evapotranspiration (T.A. Black, Press). These papers are reprinted from the world D.L. Splittlehouse, M.D . Novack, & D.T. Price, 1988, literature on optical and optoelectronic science, en- $45.00, 290 pp., paperbound, IAHS Publications). gineering, and technology as part of the SPIE Mile- This publication contains the proceedings of an IAHS stone Series. Sections include "Historical Keynote workshop held in Vancouver as part of the XlXth Paper," "Molecular Scattering and Skylight," General Assembly of the International Union of Geo- "Multiple Scattering," "Clouds," "Polarization," desy and Geophysics. Two areas of evapotranspira- "Rainbows, Coronas, and Glories," "Ice Crystal tion research that have received considerable Phenomena," "Mirages and Green Flash," "Extinc- attention in the past decade are considered under tion," "Visibility," and "Backscattering." An author section I "Surface factors affecting evapotranspira- and subject index are included. • tion," and section II "Planetary boundary layer (PBL) 50 years ago . . . 25 years ago.. . Mechanical Telephone "Voice" Gives Out 100th Anniversary of Manila Observatory Weather Bureau Forecasts The Manila Observatory, a Jesuit scientific research organization To care for the thousands of telephone requests for weather infor- privately owned and operated, is celebrating its 100th anniversary this mation, telephone companies in a number of cities have installed, or year. Its beginning reaches back in 1865 when its founder, Padre are installing, a voice recording and reproducing machine which repeats Federico Faura, began publishing weather reports and typhoon warn- the current forecast about once every 30 seconds. The forecast is fur- ings for the Philippines. The important contribution he was making nished as a public service by the local office of the U.S. Weather was recognized and given substantial public support and, in addition, Bureau. To date the mechanical "voice" is at work in New York City, aroused the interest of the King of Spain, who raised the organization Chicago, and Newark, N.J. Service is expected to begin in Baltimore to the dignity of the Royal Meteorological Observatory. about March 1 and in Detroit in the first days of April. In New York, The Jesuit staff of the Observatory independently carried on inves- which was a proving ground for the idea, the procedure is something tigations in astronomy, seismology, and geomagnetism. This scientific like this: work along with the meteorological observations was sufficiently well Four times a day,—at about 7 and 11 a.m., and 5 and 11 p.m.,— established by the end of the century to survive the turmoil of political oftener if necessary, the latest forecast from the local office of the revolution and to emerge as an important adjunct of the American and United States Weather Bureau is recorded on a slender steel tape and Philippine Governments. Continually improved and expanded as the connected with a number of telephone circuits. In New York, the person Philippine Weather Bureau, the Observatory set up over 300 auxiliary wishing weather information calls WEather 6-1212. In Chicago the weather stations throughout the Islands from which came the regular "6 " is omitted. data necessary for preparing daily weather maps and for issuing to the Far East the important results of constant typhoon tracking. As the temperature changes during the day and until 11 p.m., it is changed on the recorded forecast. Wind forecasts have been abridged, World War II brought complete destruction to the Observatory— as letters from telephone users show these interest them least of all. every building, instrument, and precious record was lost. One man While one machine is out of service during a recording, another carries alone did not give way entirely to the black paralysis of discouragement. on. A third is held in reserve. As many simultaneous calls may be Fr. Charles E. Depperman, assistant director, kept alive a hope and handled as there are lines available. • determination to continue this scientific work. • Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 21, 127. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 46, 165. Vol. 77, No. 3, March 1990
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Mar 1, 1990
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