AbstractA possible formation mechanism of mean subsurface upwelling along the equator in the Indian Ocean is investigated using a series of hierarchical ocean general circulation model (OGCM) integrations and analytical considerations. In an eddy-resolving OGCM with realistic forcing, mean vertical velocity in the tropical Indian Ocean shows rather strong upwelling, with its maximum on the equator in the subsurface layer below the thermocline. Heat budget analysis exhibits that horizontal and vertical heat advection due to deviations of velocity and temperature from the mean balances with vertical advection caused by mean equatorial upwelling. Horizontal heat advection is mostly associated with intraseasonal variability with periods of 3-91 days, while contributions from longer periods (> 91 days) are small. Sensitivity experiments with a coarse-resolution OGCM further demonstrate that such mean equatorial upwelling cannot be reproduced by seasonal forcing only. Adding the intraseasonal wind forcing, especially meridional wind variability with a period of 15 days, generates significant mean subsurface upwelling on the equator. Further experiments with idealized settings confirm the importance of intraseasonal mixed Rossby-gravity (MRG) waves to generate mean upwelling, which appears along the energy “beam” of the MRG wave. An analytical solution of the MRG waves indicates that wave-induced temperature advection caused by the MRG waves with upward (downward) phase propagation results in warming (cooling) on the equator. This wave-induced warming (cooling) is shown to balance with the mean equatorial upwelling (downwelling), which is consistent with simulated characteristics in the OGCM experiments.
Journal of Physical Oceanography – American Meteorological Society
Published: Mar 24, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera