W. Clement Ley: Nineteenth-Century Cloud Study and the European Jet Stream Comments on "From the Tropics to the Poles in Forty Days" Reply W . Clement Ley: Nineteenth-Century from time to time assisted by the labours of a few friends who have made simultaneous ob- Cloud Study and the European Jet servations in other localities .. . For a long pe- Stream riod the results arrived at appeared highly variable and unsatisfactory, but.. . certain laws 1. Introduction appear distinctly traceable amidst the maze of the upper-current variations (Ley 1872). In his account of the times, personality, and actions of Carl-Gustaf Rossby, Phillips (1998) refers to the In his efforts to establish a network of cirrus cloud existence of strong upper-level winds being estab- observers, Ley made requests to meteorological obser- lished from the motion of cirrus clouds by German me- vatories and societies in both the British Isles and teorologists in the late 1930s, and actual encounters mainland Europe. As a result, over 600 reports became of jet streams over Europe by crews of high-flying available for analysis and, as he explained: aircraft during World War II. Six hundred and twenty observations upon the As a further contribution
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: May 1, 1999
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