more than 40 delegations was formed to develop a tion of the research and education communities was final resolution on the data exchange issue. Members adopted that is broad enough to encompass environ- mental researchers from all types of institutions, in- of the U.S. delegation conducted extensive negotia- cluding those in the private and commercial sectors— tions with delegates from the nations most concerned with the data exchange issue. As a result of these for example, Bell Laboratories or SRI, Inc. A copy of substantial and lengthy discussions, the four ele- the resolution can be obtained from the International ments of the U.S. position were incorporated into the Activities Office of the National Weather Service, resolution that was finally approved. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 301-713-0645. The resolution that was adopted by Cg-XII explic- itly adopts the following policy: "As a fundamental Recognizing the changing situation for national principle of the World Meteorological Organization meteorological services, we believe that the outcome on this important issue was the best possible consid- (WMO), and in consonance with the expanding re- ering the conflicting concerns of services with com- quirements for its scientific and technical expertise, mercial activities, developing countries, and the United WMO commits itself to broadening and enhancing the free and unrestricted international exchange of me- States. Notwithstanding this resolution, however, we teorological and related data and products." The reso- expect that efforts to control or restrict the interna- lution defines a practice for international exchange as tional exchange of environmental data will continue in follows: 1) a minimum set of essential data and the future. Pressures on many national services to products "required to accurately describe and forecast recover their operational costs are probably going to increase, rather than decrease, in the near future. In weather and climate" shall be provided on a free and response to these pressures, it is likely that selling unrestricted basis; 2) additional data and products data, products, and services will become more attrac- required to sustain WMO programs at the global, regional, and national levels, shall be freely exchanged, tive to meteorological services. Therefore, we must recognizing that members may be justified, by na- remain vigilant to protect the principle of full and open tional laws or costs of production, in placing conditions exchange of all types of environmental data. • on their reexport outside the receiving country for commercial purposes; and 3) free and unrestricted access shall be provided to all data and products References exchanged under WMO auspices for the research and education communities for their noncommercial use. Anthes, R. A., 1994: UCAR response to the report of the ad hoc committee on International data exchange. Bull. Amer. Meteor. The minimum set of essential data exchanged without Soc., 75,1849-1854. charge and with no conditions on their use consists of White, R. M., 1994: Report of the ad hoc committee on international 6-h surface synoptic data, all available in situ observa- data exchange. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75,549-551. tions in the marine environment, all available aircraft reports, all available upper-air soundings, data to provide a good representation of climate, special meteorological products to meet WMO obligations, severe weather warnings and advisories, and opera- tional meteorological satellite data and products as agreed between WMO and satellite operators. More- over, these data should define the state of the atmo- sphere "at least on a scale of the order of 200 km in the horizontal and 6 to 12 hours in time." In addition, it 3n jl/iemmicwi should be noted that the receiving nations should make a "best effort" in making any conditions placed on data and products, relating to their reexport for Sfyewvice *s4cAe/Micm commercial purposes, known to all data recipients. 1924-1995 The resolution also contains important definitions of terms, as well as two sections on guidelines that essentially outline a code of conduct with respect to the WMO data exchange policy and practice and commercial activities involving meteorological ser- 1920-1995 vices. It is noteworthy that, in response to a recom- mendation by a representative of the International Council of Scientific Unions at the Congress, a defini- Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Aug 1, 1995
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