AbstractTropical cyclone (TC) intensity is strongly influenced by surface fluxes of momentum and moist enthalpy (typically parameterized in terms of “exchange coefficients” Cd and Ck respectively). The behavior of Cd and Ck remains quite uncertain especially in high wind conditions over the ocean; moreover, moist enthalpy flux is extremely sensitive to sea surface temperature (SST).This study focuses on numerical simulations of Hurricane Katrina (2005) from an atmosphere-ocean coupled modeling system to examine the combined impacts of air-sea flux parameterizations and ocean cooling on TC evolution. Three momentum flux options – which make Cd increase, level off, or decrease at hurricane-force wind speeds – with five different Ck curves are tested.Maximum 10-m wind speed (Vmax) is highly sensitive to Cd, with weaker sensitivities for minimum sea level pressure (Pmin) and track. Atmosphere-only runs that held SST fixed yield TCs with Pmin substantially deeper than observations. Introducing ocean coupling weakens TC intensity with much more realistic Pmin. The coupled run with the flux parameterization that decreases Cd at high wind speeds yields a simulated TC intensity most consistent with observations. This Cd parameterization produces TCs with the highest Vmax. Increasing Ck generally increases surface heat fluxes and thus TC intensity.For coupled runs using the default Ck parameterization, the simulated SST fields are similar (regardless of Cd parameterization) and agree well with satellite observations. The mesoscale oceanic eddies, which are well-resolved in the ocean model, contribute to the magnitude of TC-induced SST cooling and greatly influence TC intensity.
Monthly Weather Review – American Meteorological Society
Published: Nov 27, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera