AbstractA set of parameterizations is developed for spectral single-scattering properties of clean and black carbon (BC)-contaminated snow based on geometric-optics surface wave (GOS) computations, which explicitly resolves BC–snow internal mixing and various snow grain shapes. GOS calculations show that, compared with nonspherical grains, volume-equivalent snow spheres show up to 20% larger asymmetry factors and hence stronger forward scattering, particularly at wavelengths <1 μm. In contrast, snow grain sizes have a rather small impact on the asymmetry factor at wavelengths <1 μm, whereas size effects are important at longer wavelengths. The snow asymmetry factor is parameterized as a function of effective size, aspect ratio, and shape factor and shows excellent agreement with GOS calculations. According to GOS calculations, the single-scattering coalbedo of pure snow is predominantly affected by grain sizes, rather than grain shapes, with higher values for larger grains. The snow single-scattering coalbedo is parameterized in terms of the effective size that combines shape and size effects, with an accuracy of >99%. Based on GOS calculations, BC–snow internal mixing enhances the snow single-scattering coalbedo at wavelengths <1 μm, but it does not alter the snow asymmetry factor. The BC-induced enhancement ratio of snow single-scattering coalbedo, independent of snow grain size and shape, is parameterized as a function of BC concentration with an accuracy of >99%. Overall, in addition to snow grain size, both BC–snow internal mixing and snow grain shape play critical roles in quantifying BC effects on snow optical properties. The present parameterizations can be conveniently applied to snow, land surface, and climate models including snowpack radiative transfer processes.
Journal of Climate – American Meteorological Society
Published: Dec 8, 2017
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