AbstractInconsistencies may arise in numerical weather prediction models—that are based on semi-Lagrangian advection—when the governing dynamical and the kinematic trajectory equations are discretized in a dissimilar manner. This study presents consistent trajectory calculation approaches, both in the presence and absence of off-centering in the discretized dynamical equations. Both uniform and differential off-centering in the discretized dynamical equations have been considered. The proposed consistent trajectory calculations are evaluated using numerical experiments involving a nonhydrostatic two-dimensional theoretical mountain case and hydrostatic global forecasts. The experiments are carried out using the Global Environmental Multiscale model. Both the choice of the averaging method for approximating the velocity integral in the discretized trajectory equations and the interpolation scheme for calculating the departure positions are found to be important for consistent trajectory calculations. Results from the numerical experiments confirm that the proposed consistent trajectory calculation approaches not only improve numerical consistency, but also improve forecast accuracy.
Monthly Weather Review – American Meteorological Society
Published: Oct 15, 2017
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