AbstractPrevious studies have shown that the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) has a global impact that may provide an important source of skill for subseasonal predictions. The extratropical response was found to be the strongest when the tropical diabatic heating has a dipole structure with convection anomaly centers of opposite sign in the eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. A positive (negative) MJO dipole heating refers to that with heating (cooling) in the eastern Indian Ocean and cooling (heating) in the western Pacific. In this study, two aspects of the extratropical response to the MJO are examined: 1) nonlinearity, which answers the question of whether the response to a positive MJO dipole heating is the mirror image of that to a negative MJO, and 2) sensitivity to the initial state, which explores the dependence of the extratropical response on the initial condition of the westerly jet.Ensemble integrations using a primitive-equation global atmospheric circulation model are performed with anomalous tropical thermal forcings that resemble a positive MJO (+MJO) and a negative MJO (−MJO). The response in the first week is largely linear. After that, significant asymmetry is found between the response in the positive MJO and the negative MJO. The 500-hPa negative geopotential height response in the North Pacific of the −MJO run is located about 30° east of the positive height response of the +MJO run. There is also an eastward shift of the extratropical wave train in the Pacific–North American region. This simulated nonlinearity is in agreement with the observations. The two leading response patterns among the ensemble members are identified by an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. EOF1 represents an eastward shift of the wave train, which is positively correlated with strengthening of the East Asian subtropical upper-troposphere westerly jet in the initial condition. On the other hand, EOF2 represents an amplification of the response, which is associated with a southward shift of the westerly jet in the initial state.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences – American Meteorological Society
Published: Jan 20, 2018
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