AbstractGlobally, 2014 and 2015 were the two warmest years on record. At odds with these global records, eastern Canada experienced pronounced annual cold anomalies in both 2014 and 2015, especially during the 2013/14 and 2014/15 winters. This study sought to contextualize these cold winters within a larger climate context in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Toronto winter temperatures (maximum Tmax, minimum Tmin, and mean Tmean) for the 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons were ranked among all winters for three periods: 1840/41–2015 (175 winters), 1955/56–2015 (60 winters), and 1985/86–2015 (30 winters), and the average warming trend for each temperature metric during these three periods was analyzed using the Mann–Kendall test and Thiel–Sen slope estimation. The winters of 2013/14 and 2014/15 were the 34th and 36th coldest winters in Toronto since record-keeping began in 1840; however these events are much rarer, relatively, over shorter periods of history. Overall, Toronto winter temperatures have warmed considerably since winter 1840/41. The Mann–Kendall analysis showed statistically significant monotonic trends in winter Tmax, Tmin, and Tmean over the last 175 and 60 years. These trends notwithstanding, there has been no clear signal in Toronto winter temperature since 1985/86. However, there was a statistically significant increase in the diurnal temperature range in that period, indicating an expansion of winter extremes. It is proposed that the possible saturation of urban heat island–related warming in Toronto may partially explain this increase in variation. Also, anomalies in the position of the polar jet stream over Toronto during these cold events are identified. No direct influence of major teleconnections on Toronto winter temperature is found.
Journal of Climate – American Meteorological Society
Published: Jul 29, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera