AbstractA new version of bin microphysical scheme implemented into WRF was used to study the effect of glaciogenic seeding on precipitation formation in orographic clouds. The tracking of silver iodide (AgI) particles inside of water drops allows the proper simulation of the immersion nucleation. The ice formations by deposition, condensational-freezing and contact nucleation of AgI particles are also simulated in the scheme. Cloud formation – both stably stratified and convective – and the spread of AgI particles were simulated by idealized flow over a two-dimensional (2D) bell–shaped mountain. The results of numerical experiments show: (i) Only the airborne seeding enhances precipitation in stably-stratified layer clouds. Seeding can reduce or enhance precipitation in convective clouds. AgI seeding can significantly affect the spatial distribution of the surface precipitation in orographic clouds. (ii) The positive seeding effect is primarily due to additional diffusional growth of AgI-nucleated ice crystals in layer clouds. In convective clouds, seeding-induced changes of both diffusion and riming processes determine the seeding effect. (iii) Seeding effect is inversely related to the natural precipitation efficiency. (iv) Bulk seeding parameterization is adequate to simulate AgI seeding impacts on wintertime orographic clouds. More uncertainties of ground seeding effects are found between bulk and bin simulations.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology – American Meteorological Society
Published: Mar 9, 2017
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