AbstractA ground-based Doppler radar observed the rapid intensification (RI) of Typhoon Goni (2015) for 24 h immediately after it completed an eyewall replacement cycle. Goni’s RI processes were examined by using radar reflectivity and wind fields retrieved by the ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) technique. The maximum wind at 2-km altitude increased by 30 m s−1 during the first 6 h of RI, and it further increased by 20 m s−1 during the subsequent 12 h. Around the onset of RI, relatively strong outflow (>2 m s−1) was present both inside and outside the radius of maximum wind (RMW) above the boundary layer (BL), suggesting the existence of supergradient flow in and just above the BL. Despite this outflow, angular momentum increased inside the RMW. The low-level RMW contracted rapidly from 50 to 33 km, causing the RMW to slope greatly outward with height. The radius of maximum reflectivity was a few kilometers inside the RMW. A budget analysis of absolute angular momentum showed that the outflow contributed to contraction of the tangential wind field. During RI, eyewall convection was enhanced and a well-defined eye appeared. The low-level outflow changed into inflow immediately outside the RMW. Then the tangential wind field and high inertial stability region expanded radially outward, followed by the formation of an outer reflectivity maximum at twice the RMW. The contraction speed of the low-level RMW slowed down.
Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences – American Meteorological Society
Published: Nov 20, 2017
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