AbstractA strong MJO event produced an upper-tropospheric jet streak in northeast Asia and repeated wave breaking in the jet exit region along 150°E during July 1988. A midlatitude low moved equatorward and intensified in the presence of bandpass-filtered (15–100 day) Q vector forcing for upward motion associated with the wave breaking. This forced ascent helped to moisten the atmosphere enough to increase the column water vapor to above 55 mm. This value was sufficiently large to support a self-sustaining low even after the upper forcing weakened. The horizontal scale of the Q vector forcing was about 1500 km, consistent with the scale of most favorable convective response to quasigeostrophic forcing in the subtropics described by Nie and Sobel. The low lasted one month as it moved southwestward, then westward, while remaining north of 20°N. Maximum precipitation along the track of the low exceeded 700 mm, with an anomaly more than 400 mm. A climatology of long-lasting lows was carried out for the monsoon gyre cases studied previously. During El Niño, long-lasting lows often began near the equator in the central Pacific, and were likely to have a mixed Rossby–gravity wave or equatorial Rossby wave structure. It is speculated that the quasi-biweekly mode, the submonthly oscillation, the 20–25-day mode, and the Pacific–Japan pattern are each variations on this kind of event. During La Niña, long-lasting lows that originated in midlatitudes were more common. It is argued that these lows from midlatitudes represent a unique disturbance type in boreal summer.
Monthly Weather Review – American Meteorological Society
Published: Jan 8, 2018
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