AbstractA hybrid ensemble-3DVar (En3DVar) system is developed and compared with 3DVar, EnKF, ‘deterministic forecast’ EnKF (DfEnKF), and pure En3DVar for assimilating radar data through perfect-model observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). DfEnKF uses a deterministic forecast as the background and is therefore parallel to pure En3DVar. Different results are found between DfEnKF and pure En3DVar; the 1) serial versus global nature and 2) the variational minimization versus direct filter updating nature of the two algorithms are identified as the main causes for the differences. For 3DVar (EnKF/DfEnKF and En3DVar), optimal de-correlation scales (localization radii) for static (ensemble) background error covariances are obtained and used in hybrid En3DVar. The sensitivity of hybrid En3DVar to covariance weights and ensemble size is examined. On average, when ensemble size is 20 or larger, a 5 to 10% static covariance gives the best results, while for smaller ensembles, more static covariance is beneficial. Using an ensemble size of 40, EnKF and DfEnKF perform similarly, and both are better than pure and hybrid En3DVar overall. Using 5% static error covariance, hybrid En3DVar outperforms pure En3DVar for most state variables but underperforms for hydrometeor variables, and the improvement (degradation) is most notable for water vapor mixing ratio qv (snow mixing ratio qs). Overall, EnKF/DfEnKF performs the best, 3DVar the worst, and static covariance only helps slightly via hybrid En3DVar.
Monthly Weather Review – American Meteorological Society
Published: Dec 1, 2017
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