AbstractSpatiotemporal precipitation patterns were investigated on the western slopes of the central Andes Mountains by applying EOF and cluster analysis as well as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. In the semiarid catchment area in the highlands of Lima, Peru, the precipitation is assumed to be a cross-scale interplay of large-scale dynamics, varying sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and breeze-dominated slope flows. The EOF analysis was used to encompass and elucidate the upper-level circulation patterns dominating the transport of moisture. To delineate local precipitation regimes, a partitioning cluster analysis was carried out, which additionally should illustrate local effects such as the altitudinal gradient of the Andes. The results demonstrated that especially during the transition to the dry season, synoptic-scale circulation aloft controls the precipitation (correlation coefficients between 0.6 and 0.9), whereas in the remaining seasons the slope breezes due to the altitudinal gradient mainly determine the precipitation behavior. Further analysis with regard to the spatiotemporal precipitation variability revealed an inversion of the precipitation distribution along the elevational gradient within the study area, mainly during February (29%) and March (35%), that showed correlations with coastal SST patterns ranging between 0.56 and 0.67. WRF simulations of the underlying mechanisms disclosed that the large-scale circulation influences the thermally induced upslope flows while the strength of southeastern low-level winds related to the coastal SSTs caused a blocking of easterlies in the middle troposphere through a reduced anticyclonic effect. This interplay enables the generation of precipitation in the usually drier environment at lower elevations, which leads to a decrease in rainfall with increasing elevation.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology – American Meteorological Society
Published: Mar 21, 2018
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