IN BOX INSIGHTS and INNOVATIONS Continuous Lidar Monitoring of Polar Stratospheric Clouds at the South Pole BY JAME S R . CAMPBELL, ELLSWORT H J . WELTON , AN D JAME S D . SPINHIRNE olar stratospheric clouds (PSC) play a primary 18.0 k m above mea n sea level (MSL) in air surrounding role in the formation of annua l "ozone holes" over the South Pole by mid-June each season. In the absence PAntarctica during the austral sunrise. Meridional of nitrates, it is only with the overturning of th e polar temperatur e gradients in the lower stratosphere and vortex in spring that catalytic processes cease and e concentrations are replenished throug h airmass upper troposphere, caused by strong radiative cool- ozon ing, induce a broa d dynami c vortex centered near the exchange with the lower latitudes. South Pole that decouples and insulates the winter Despite a generic understanding of the "ozone polar airmass. PSC nucleate an d grow as vorte x tem- hole" paradigm , man y key component s of th e system, peratures gradually fall belo w equilibriu m saturation such as cloud occurrence, phase, and composition; an d frost points for ambient sulfate,
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: May 1, 2009
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