AbstractUsing long-term observational data and numerical model experiments, this study found that the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) affects the influence of ENSO-like sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs, which contain the variability of both El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Pacific decadal oscillation) on the interannual change in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). In the observations, the out-of-phase relationship between the variations in ENSO and the EAWM was significantly intensified when the AMO and ENSO-like SSTAs were in phase. Warmer-than-normal winters occurred across East Asia when the ENSO-like SSTAs and AMO were positively in phase, with a significantly weakened Siberian high and anomalous anticyclones over the western North Pacific. The opposite patterns occurred under negative in-phase conditions. In contrast, when the ENSO-like and AMO SSTAs were out of phase, the anomalies related to the EAWM tended to exhibit relatively weaker features. Numerical model experiments confirmed these observational results. When the models were perturbed with warm ENSO-like SSTAs and warm AMO SSTAs, the atmosphere showed a weakened Siberian high, strong anticyclonic anomalies over the Philippine Sea, a weakened East Asian trough, and dominant positive temperature anomalies over East Asia, implying a weaker EAWM. Reverse responses to negative in-phase temperature anomalies were observed. However, the atmospheric signals that responded to the out-of-phase conditions were less robust. This phenomenon may be attributed to the superposition of the interannual variability of the EAWM caused by ENSO-like SSTAs upon the influence of AMO on background Eurasian climate and the Walker circulation response to the heating source provided by the AMO, which induced changes in ENSO-like variability through the surface wind anomalies and modulated the anomalous anticyclone/cyclone over the Philippine Sea in warm–cold ENSO-like events.
Journal of Climate – American Meteorological Society
Published: Apr 8, 2017
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