AbstractIce fog is a natural, outdoor cloud laboratory that provides an excellent opportunity to study ice microphysical processes. Ice crystals in fog are formed through similar pathways as those in elevated clouds, i.e. cloud condensation or ice nuclei are activated in an atmosphere supersaturated with respect to liquid water or ice. The primary differences between surface and elevated ice clouds are related to the sources of water vapor, the cooling mechanisms and dynamical processes leading to supersaturation and the microphysical characteristics of the nuclei that affect ice fog, crystal physical properties. As with any fog, its presence can be a hazard for ground or airborne traffic due to poor visibility and icing. In addition, ice fog plays a role in climate change by modulating the heat and moisture budgets.Ice fog wintertime occurrence in many parts of the world can have a significant impact on the environment. Global climate models need to accurately account for the temporal and spatial microphysical and optical properties of ice fog, as do weather forecast models. The primary handicap is the lack of adequate information on nucleation processes and microphysical algorithms that accurately represent glaciation of supercooled water fog.This chapter summarizes our current understanding of ice fog formation and evolution, discusses operating principles, limitations and uncertainties associated with the instruments used to measure ice fog microphysical properties, describes the prediction of ice fog by the numerical forecast models and physical parameterizations used in climate models, identifies the outstanding questions to be resolved, and lists recommended actions to address and solve these questions.
Meteorological Monographs – American Meteorological Society
Published: Aug 25, 2017
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera