Concentration Fluctuations and Averaging time, instrument response time, and mass-weighted Time in Vapor Clouds. David J. Wilson . 1 995 . 1 8 1 sample time. pp. $90.00 . Hardbound. American Institute of Chemical In general, the spread of an instantaneous plume is Engineers. ISB N 0-8169-0679-3. mor e narrow than the spread of the time-averaged plum e as a result of plum e meander; thus, mean con- Most of the widely used regulatory models predict centration s will nearly always underestimate maxi- concentrations downwind of contaminant sources for mu m short-term exposures. The ratio of the instanta- averaging periods between one hour and one year. The neous diffusion coefficien t to the mean diffusion co- concentration at an impacted receptor, however, fluc- efficien t should depend on travel time, corresponding tuates instantaneously in response to variability of the averaging times, and the nature of the turbulence caus- turbulen t atmospheric processes, which dilute and ing diffusion and meander. This topic is addressed in advect the pollutant; thus, the maximum concentra- chapte r 3 in terms of power-law approaches and in term s of Gifford's random force model for several tion during a one-hour period may be much greater
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Aug 1, 1996
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