AbstractThe Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) provides measurements of the upper ocean and near-surface atmosphere at 18 locations. Time series from many moorings are nearly 20 years in length. However, instrumental biases, data dropouts, and the coarse vertical resolutions of the oceanic measurements complicate their use for research. Here an enhanced PIRATA dataset (ePIRATA) is presented for the 17 PIRATA moorings with record lengths of at least seven years. Data in ePIRATA are corrected for instrumental biases, temporal gaps are filled using supplementary datasets, and the subsurface temperature and salinity time series are mapped to a uniform 5-m vertical grid. All original PIRATA data that pass quality control and that do not require bias correction are retained without modification, and detailed error estimates are provided. The terms in the mixed-layer heat and temperature budgets are calculated and included, with error bars. As an example of ePIRATA’s application, the vertical exchange of heat at the base of the mixed layer (Q−h) is calculated at each PIRATA location as the difference between the heat storage rate and the sum of the net surface heat flux and horizontal advection. Off-equatorial locations are found to have annual mean cooling rates of 20–60 W m−2, while cooling at equatorial locations reaches 85–110 W m−2 between 10° and 35°W and decreases to 40 W m−2 at 0°. At most off-equatorial locations, the strongest seasonal cooling from Q−h occurs when winds are weak. Possible explanations are discussed, including the importance of seasonal modulations of mixed-layer depth and the diurnal cycle.
Journal of Climate – American Meteorological Society
Published: Feb 17, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.
Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera