ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The combined land and ocean surface temperature in 2007 fell within the 10 highest on record, while the average land temperature was the warmest since global records began in 1880. In the low to midtroposphere, the annual global mean temperature was among the five warmest since reliable global records began in 1958, but still cooler than the record warmest year of 1998. For the fourth consecutive year, the annual precipitation averaged over global land surfaces was above the long-term mean, although the anomaly was significantly less than in 2006 when the annual value was the eighth wettest since 1901.The globally averaged concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) continued to increase in 2007, having risen to 382.7 ppm at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. The average rate of rise of CO2 has been 1.6 ppm yr1 since 1980; however, since 2000 this has increased to 1.9 ppm yr1. In addition, both methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were also higher in 2007.Over the oceans, global SST during 2007 showed significant departures from the 19712000 climatology. Annual average upper-ocean heat content anomalies declined between 2006 and 2007 in the eastern equatorial Pacific and increased in off-equatorial bands in that ocean basin. These changes were consistent with the transition from an El Nio in 2006 to a La Nia in 2007. The global mean sea level anomaly (SLA) in 2007 was I.I mm higher than in 2006, which is about one standard deviation below what would be expected from the 15-yr trend value of 3.4 mm yr1.In the tropics, the Atlantic hurricane season was near normal in 2007, although slightly more active than in 2006. In the north and south Indian Ocean Basins, both the seasonal totals and intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) were significantly above average, and included two Saffir-Simpson category 5 TCs in the north Indian Ocean and a world record rainfall amount of 5510 mm over a 38-day period on the island of Reunion in the south Indian Ocean.In the polar regions 2007 was the warmest on record for the Arctic, and continued a general, Arctic-wide warming trend that began in the mid-1960s. An unusually strong high pressure region in the Beaufort Sea during summer contributed to a record minimum Arctic sea ice cover in September. Measurements of the mass balance of glaciers and ice caps indicate that in most of the world, glaciers are shrinking in mass. The Greenland ice sheet experienced records in both the duration and extent of the summer surface melt. From the continental scale, as a whole the Antarctic was warmer than average in 2007, although the Antarctic Peninsula was considerably cooler than average. The size of the ozone hole was below the record levels of 2006, and near the average of the past 15 yr, due to warmer springtime temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society

ABSTRACT

I . INTRODUCTION—] . H. Lawrimore and D. H. Levinson Thi s special section represents the 18th annual State of th e Climate report, the 12th year the report D. H. LEVINSON AND I . H. LAWRIMORE ha s bee n included in BAMS, and the thir d year it has appeare d as a separate supplement. NOAA's NCDC The combined land and ocean surface temperature in 2007 fell within the 10 highest on record, while the (see th e appendix for a complete list of acrony m ex- average land temperature was the warmest since global pansions ) has been responsible for th e report's pub- records began in 1880. In the low to midtroposphere, lication for th e past eight years, although the report the annual global mean temperature was among the five is trul y an interagency and international effort. For warmest since reliable global records began in 1958, but th e 2007 article, over 200 scientists fro m aroun d the still cooler than the record warmest year of 1998. For the fourth consecutive year, the annual precipitation averaged world participated , as th e editorial tea m continue d to over global land surfaces was above the long-term mean, focu s on expanding international participation. although the anomaly was significantly less than in 2006 Th e purpos e of this annua l summar y is to high- when the annual value was the eighth wettest since 1901. light th e mos t salient events an d overall climate con- The globally averaged concentration of carbon dioxide dition s of 2007, which include noteworthy weather (C0 ) continued to increase in 2007, having risen to events (e.g., floods , tropica l cyclones, tornadoes , and 382.7 ppm at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. The average rate of rise of C0 has been 1.6 ppm yr~' 2 heat waves), assessment of temperatur e an d precipita- since 1980; however, since 2000 this has increased to tio n anomalies, and reports on some of th e primary 1.9 ppm yr _l . In addition, both methane (CH ) and carbon feature s an d parameter s of...
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Publisher
American Meteorological Society
Copyright
Copyright © American Meteorological Society
ISSN
1520-0477
D.O.I.
10.1175/1520-0477-89.7.S10
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The combined land and ocean surface temperature in 2007 fell within the 10 highest on record, while the average land temperature was the warmest since global records began in 1880. In the low to midtroposphere, the annual global mean temperature was among the five warmest since reliable global records began in 1958, but still cooler than the record warmest year of 1998. For the fourth consecutive year, the annual precipitation averaged over global land surfaces was above the long-term mean, although the anomaly was significantly less than in 2006 when the annual value was the eighth wettest since 1901.The globally averaged concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) continued to increase in 2007, having risen to 382.7 ppm at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. The average rate of rise of CO2 has been 1.6 ppm yr1 since 1980; however, since 2000 this has increased to 1.9 ppm yr1. In addition, both methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were also higher in 2007.Over the oceans, global SST during 2007 showed significant departures from the 19712000 climatology. Annual average upper-ocean heat content anomalies declined between 2006 and 2007 in the eastern equatorial Pacific and increased in off-equatorial bands in that ocean basin. These changes were consistent with the transition from an El Nio in 2006 to a La Nia in 2007. The global mean sea level anomaly (SLA) in 2007 was I.I mm higher than in 2006, which is about one standard deviation below what would be expected from the 15-yr trend value of 3.4 mm yr1.In the tropics, the Atlantic hurricane season was near normal in 2007, although slightly more active than in 2006. In the north and south Indian Ocean Basins, both the seasonal totals and intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) were significantly above average, and included two Saffir-Simpson category 5 TCs in the north Indian Ocean and a world record rainfall amount of 5510 mm over a 38-day period on the island of Reunion in the south Indian Ocean.In the polar regions 2007 was the warmest on record for the Arctic, and continued a general, Arctic-wide warming trend that began in the mid-1960s. An unusually strong high pressure region in the Beaufort Sea during summer contributed to a record minimum Arctic sea ice cover in September. Measurements of the mass balance of glaciers and ice caps indicate that in most of the world, glaciers are shrinking in mass. The Greenland ice sheet experienced records in both the duration and extent of the summer surface melt. From the continental scale, as a whole the Antarctic was warmer than average in 2007, although the Antarctic Peninsula was considerably cooler than average. The size of the ozone hole was below the record levels of 2006, and near the average of the past 15 yr, due to warmer springtime temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere.

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Jul 1, 2008

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