A Recommended Specific Definition of Resolution

A Recommended Specific Definition of Resolution , an d , 1991 b: Surface air temperatur e response to increas- ing global industrial productivity: A beneficial greenhouse effect? correspondence Theoret. Appl. Climatol., 44, 37-41. , and B.A. Kimball, 1991a: Effects of two and a half years of atmospheric C0 enrichment on the root density distribution of A Recommended Specific Definition three-year-old sour orange trees. Agric. For. Meteorol., 55,345-349. , an d , 1991 b: Downward regulation of photosynthesis and of "Resolution" growth at high C0 levels: No evidence for either phenomenon in three-yea r study of sour orange trees. Plant Physiol., 96,990- The term, "resolution," has been used in a wide variety of peer-reviewed publications to refer to the grid , , and S.G. Allen, 1991a: Net photosynthesis of sour increment used in a model. For example, general orange trees maintained in atmospheres of ambient and el- evated C0 concentration. Agric. For. Meteorol., 54, 95-101. circulation models (GCMs) are said to have a resolu- , —— , and , 1991 b: C0 enrichment of sour orange trees: tion of about 400 km by 400 km, when that scale more 2.5 years into a long-term experiment. Plant Cell Environ., 14, appropriately refers to the horizontal grid mesh. 351-353 . From sampling theory, it is well known, however, Keeling, C.D., and T.P. Whorf, 1990: Atmospheric carbon dioxide that at least two grid increments are required to concentrations, Mauna Loa. TRENDS '90: A compendium of data on global change, ORNL/CDIAC-36, T.A. Boden, P. represent data. Real information at scales smaller Kanciruk, and M.P. Farrell, Eds., Carbon Dioxide Information than two grid increments are erroneously aliased to and Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 8-9. larger scales. An illustration of this is presented in Kimball, B.A., 1986: CO^ stimulation of growth and yield under Pielke (1984, Fig. 10.7). Models such as GCMs, enviromental constraints. H.Z. Enoch and B.A. Kimbal, Eds. however, require additional grid resolution to ad- Carbon Dioxide Enrichment of Greenhouse Crops. Vol. II: Physi- ology, Yield, and Economics. CRC Press, 53-67. equately simulate meteorological processes as a re- Kohlmaier, G.H., E. -O. Sire, A. Janecek, C.D. Keeling, S.C. Piper, sult of serious computational inaccuracies at scales and R. Revelle, 1989: Modeling the seasonal contribution of less than four grid increments (e.g., see Table 10.1, a C0 -fertilization effect of the terrestrial vegetation to the 10.2, and 10.3 in Pielke 1984). Some investigators amplitude increase in atmospheric C0 at Mauna Loa Ob- suggest even more grid increments are needed for servatory. Tellus, 41B, 487-510. , R. Revelle, C.D. Keeling, S.C. Piper, 1991: Reply to Idso. adequate simulations. Tellus, 43B, 342-346. Using these clarifications, resolution within a nu- Legrand, M., and C. Saigne, 1988: Formate, acetate, and merical model should refer to at least four times the methanesulfonate measurements in Antarctic ice: Some geo- grid interval. For instance, a GCM with 400 km by 400 chemical implications. Atmos. Environ., 22, 1011-1017. km horizontal grid increments would have a resolution , R.J. Delmas, and R.J. Charlson, 1988: Climate forcing implica- tions from Vostok ice-core sulphate data. Nature, 334,418-420. of no less than 1600 km by 1600 km. Diagnostic data Lugo, A.E., and S. Brown, 1986: Steady state terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., terrain) with sampling at a 400-km interval would and the global carbon cycle. Vegetatio, 68, 83-90. have a resolution of no better than 800 km. Lyle, M., 1988: Climatically forced organic carbon burial in equatorial Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Nature, 335, 529-532. ROGER A . PIELKE Marland, G., 1988: Th e prospect of solving the C0 problem through global reforestation. U.S. Department of Energy, 66 pp. DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE Pearman, G.I., and P. Hyson, 1981: The annual variation of atmo- COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY spheric C0 concentration observed in th e northern hemisphere. FORT COLLINS, C O 8052 3 J. Geophy. Res., 86, 9839-9847. Pedersen, T.F., 1983: Increased productivity in the eastern equato- rial Pacific during the last glacial maximum (19,000 to 14,000 yr B.P.). Geology, 11, 16-19. References Post, W.M., T.-H. Peng, W.R. Emanuel, A.W. King, V.H. Dale, and D.L. DeAngelis, 1990: The global carbon cycle. Amer. Sci., 78, Pielke, R.A., 1984: Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling. Academic 310-326 . Press, 612 pp. Ramanathan, V., R.D. Cess, E.F. Harrison, P. Minnis, B.R. Barkstrom, E. Ahmad, and D. Hartmann, 1989: Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science, 243, 57-63. Saigne , C., and M. Legrand, 1987: Measurements of methanesulphonic acid in Antarctic ice. Nature, 320, 240-242. Schlesinger, W.H., and J. M. Melack, 1981: Transport of organic carbon in the world's rivers. Tellus, 33, 172-187. Syers. J.K., J.A. Adams, and T.W. Walker, 1960: Accumulation of organic matter in a chrohosequence of soils developed on wind- blown sand in New Zealand. J. Soil Sci., 21,146-153. Thomas, R.B., and B.R. Strain, 1991: Root restriction as a factor in photosynthetic acclimation of cotton seedlings grown in elevated carbon dioxide. Plant Physiol., 96, 627-634. Vol. 72, No. 12, December 1991 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society

A Recommended Specific Definition of Resolution

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Abstract

, an d , 1991 b: Surface air temperatur e response to increas- ing global industrial productivity: A beneficial greenhouse effect? correspondence Theoret. Appl. Climatol., 44, 37-41. , and B.A. Kimball, 1991a: Effects of two and a half years of atmospheric C0 enrichment on the root density distribution of A Recommended Specific Definition three-year-old sour orange trees. Agric. For. Meteorol., 55,345-349. , an d , 1991 b: Downward regulation of photosynthesis and of "Resolution" growth at high C0 levels: No evidence for either phenomenon in three-yea r study of sour orange trees. Plant Physiol., 96,990- The term, "resolution," has been used in a wide variety of peer-reviewed publications to refer to the grid , , and S.G. Allen, 1991a: Net photosynthesis of sour increment used in a model. For example, general orange trees maintained in atmospheres of ambient and el- evated C0 concentration. Agric. For. Meteorol., 54, 95-101. circulation models (GCMs) are said to have a resolu- , —— , and , 1991 b: C0 enrichment of sour orange trees: tion of about 400 km by 400 km, when that scale more 2.5 years into a long-term experiment. Plant Cell Environ., 14, appropriately refers to the horizontal grid mesh. 351-353 . From sampling theory, it is well known, however, Keeling, C.D., and T.P. Whorf, 1990: Atmospheric carbon dioxide that at least two grid increments are required to concentrations, Mauna Loa. TRENDS '90: A compendium of data on global change, ORNL/CDIAC-36, T.A. Boden, P. represent data. Real information at scales smaller Kanciruk, and M.P. Farrell, Eds., Carbon Dioxide Information than two grid increments are erroneously aliased to and Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 8-9. larger scales. An illustration of this is presented in Kimball, B.A., 1986: CO^ stimulation of growth and yield under Pielke (1984, Fig. 10.7). Models such as GCMs, enviromental constraints. H.Z. Enoch and B.A. Kimbal, Eds. however, require additional grid resolution to ad- Carbon Dioxide Enrichment of Greenhouse Crops. Vol. II: Physi- ology, Yield, and Economics. CRC Press, 53-67. equately simulate meteorological processes as a re- Kohlmaier, G.H., E. -O. Sire, A. Janecek, C.D. Keeling, S.C. Piper, sult of serious computational inaccuracies at scales and R. Revelle, 1989: Modeling the seasonal contribution of less than four grid increments (e.g., see Table 10.1, a C0 -fertilization effect of the terrestrial vegetation to the 10.2, and 10.3 in Pielke 1984). Some investigators amplitude increase in atmospheric C0 at Mauna Loa Ob- suggest even more grid increments are needed for servatory. Tellus, 41B, 487-510. , R. Revelle, C.D. Keeling, S.C. Piper, 1991: Reply to Idso. adequate simulations. Tellus, 43B, 342-346. Using these clarifications, resolution within a nu- Legrand, M., and C. Saigne, 1988: Formate, acetate, and merical model should refer to at least four times the methanesulfonate measurements in Antarctic ice: Some geo- grid interval. For instance, a GCM with 400 km by 400 chemical implications. Atmos. Environ., 22, 1011-1017. km horizontal grid increments would have a resolution , R.J. Delmas, and R.J. Charlson, 1988: Climate forcing implica- tions from Vostok ice-core sulphate data. Nature, 334,418-420. of no less than 1600 km by 1600 km. Diagnostic data Lugo, A.E., and S. Brown, 1986: Steady state terrestrial ecosystems (e.g., terrain) with sampling at a 400-km interval would and the global carbon cycle. Vegetatio, 68, 83-90. have a resolution of no better than 800 km. Lyle, M., 1988: Climatically forced organic carbon burial in equatorial Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Nature, 335, 529-532. ROGER A . PIELKE Marland, G., 1988: Th e prospect of solving the C0 problem through global reforestation. U.S. Department of Energy, 66 pp. DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE Pearman, G.I., and P. Hyson, 1981: The annual variation of atmo- COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY spheric C0 concentration observed in th e northern hemisphere. FORT COLLINS, C O 8052 3 J. Geophy. Res., 86, 9839-9847. Pedersen, T.F., 1983: Increased productivity in the eastern equato- rial Pacific during the last glacial maximum (19,000 to 14,000 yr B.P.). Geology, 11, 16-19. References Post, W.M., T.-H. Peng, W.R. Emanuel, A.W. King, V.H. Dale, and D.L. DeAngelis, 1990: The global carbon cycle. Amer. Sci., 78, Pielke, R.A., 1984: Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling. Academic 310-326 . Press, 612 pp. Ramanathan, V., R.D. Cess, E.F. Harrison, P. Minnis, B.R. Barkstrom, E. Ahmad, and D. Hartmann, 1989: Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science, 243, 57-63. Saigne , C., and M. Legrand, 1987: Measurements of methanesulphonic acid in Antarctic ice. Nature, 320, 240-242. Schlesinger, W.H., and J. M. Melack, 1981: Transport of organic carbon in the world's rivers. Tellus, 33, 172-187. Syers. J.K., J.A. Adams, and T.W. Walker, 1960: Accumulation of organic matter in a chrohosequence of soils developed on wind- blown sand in New Zealand. J. Soil Sci., 21,146-153. Thomas, R.B., and B.R. Strain, 1991: Root restriction as a factor in photosynthetic acclimation of cotton seedlings grown in elevated carbon dioxide. Plant Physiol., 96, 627-634. Vol. 72, No. 12, December 1991

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Published: Dec 1, 1991

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