together with their radar signatures. The latest ad- dar polarimetry; improvements of rain measurements vances in polarimetric-Doppler weather radar technol- and identification of hail with polarimetric radar. ogy are presented. The principals of clear air 7) Observation of winds, storms, and related phenom- observation and fair weather phenomena will be dis- ena: Visual depiction of storm phenomena (e.g., tor- cussed. This course is based on the textbook Doppler nadoes, microbursts) and their radar signatures; wind Radar and Weather Observations. Who should attend? Meteorologists, weather fore- casters, physicists, engineers, and other professionals who need to understand applications of Doppler weather radar. Although there is no specific prereq- uisite for this course, participants should have an un- Excessive Rains and Floods in Illinois, derstanding of elementary physics and mathematics. September, 1926 The following topics will be covered in the course: 1) The principles of weather radar: History of radar Mr. Clarence J. Root, in development; electromagnetic waves; polarization; charge of the Springfield, 111., normal and anomalous propagation; pulsed-Doppler station of the Weather Bureau, radar; signals received from point and distributed scat- gives .. . a summary of the un- tered; attenuation due to stormy and fair weather; back precedented conditions which scatter and attenuation cross sections; hydrometeor obtained in the state as a result size distributions; the radar equation; representations of the rains during September. of echoes from moving and stationary scatterers; ra- Only six days in the month dar limitations (e.g., range and velocity ambiguities). were generally rainless over the state. On 11 days 2) Weather signals: Signal statistics; echo coherency; rainfalls exceeding 2 in. occurred somewhere in the weather radar equation; angular and range weight- the state, and on six of these there were rainfalls ing functions; resolution volume; the reflectivity fac- exceeding 4 in. Eight inches was the heaviest in tor; correlation of echoes in range and time. 3) Doppler 24 hours, and 16.83 in. the greatest monthly to- spectra of weather signals: Discrete Fourier transform tal. Central Illinois was worst hit, the mean rain- and window functions; Doppler spectra of weather fall for that third of the state being 12 in. in echoes; relation between wind, reflectivity, and the September, 1926. Doppler spectrum; examples of Doppler spectra as- The seriousness of the situation may be sur- sociated with various weather phenomena (e.g., tor- mised from the following: nadoes). 4) Weather signal processing: Spectral Loss in one city estimated at more than moments; estimation of reflectivity using range and $350,000. time averaging; autocovariance and spectral process- One building damaged to the extent of ing to estimate mean Doppler velocity and spectrum $25,000. width; signal processing for coherent polarimetric ra- On the day following the greatest storm at dar; performance of the estimators; examples of two- Springfield, but a single road into the surround- dimensional fields of reflectivity factors, radial ing country remained open to traffic. velocity, and turbulence. 5) Considerations in the ob- Damage at another city, $500,000. servation of weather: Spectrum width; wind shear and Floods covered nearly 14,000 acres in one dis- turbulence; antenna sidelobes; ground and sea clutter; trict. techniques to extend unambiguous range and veloc- A subway for electric trains, Springfield, out ity; the effective width of a scanning beam; thunder- of commission for three days. storm structure; wind estimation with two Doppler No service on one steam railroad division for radars; severe local storms, mesoscale convective sys- four days on account of major track washouts, tems, and hurricanes. 6) Precipitation measurements: bridges swept away, etc. Single parameter techniques (e.g., using reflectivity factor Z or specific differential phase K ) to estimate Dp rain rate R; relations between Z, R, and liquid water Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc7, 167. content; accuracy of rain measurements; two-param- eter techniques to estimate rainfall; principles of ra- Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Dec 1, 2001
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