75 YEARS AGO

75 YEARS AGO as guidance to distribute warnings of gale force winds for a number of years, but has never been available in (40 mph or higher) over coastal North and South real time for forecasting. Carolina. The measurements from the SFMR provide a critical "What this new set of data provides is continuous addition to existing tools for wind speed measurements, measurement of wind speed over a large area," says said Powell. Dropwindsondes deployed from aircraft fly- NOAA hurricane wind field expert Mark Powell. "Based ing through and around a hurricane have been instrumen- on successful comparison to the observations such as tal in providing point observations within a storm, buoys and coastal weather stations, the data from the new sending information every half second. instrument were accepted by the HRD analysis system Winds measured at flight level (about 10,000 ft) by in real time and used by the National Hurricane Center." the U.S. Air Force and NOAA hurricane reconnaissance The technology in this experiment features a stepped aircraft are used in atmospheric models to estimate sur- frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR), a sensor built face winds. Estimating wind speeds from that altitude has by the University of Massachusetts and Quadrant Engi- resulted in as much as 20% uncertainty. By incorporat- neering in Amherst, Massachusetts, which is currently ing the SFMR wind speeds, scientists hope to reduce that flown aboard a NOAA hurricane hunter aircraft. The uncertainty to provide more accurate forecasts for coastal SFMR measures the signal returned by the ocean surface communities. beneath the aircraft as it is churned up by hurricane winds. "The SFMR gives us much more complete storm cov- This technology has been in use for research purposes erage at the surface than the sondes, and at a fraction of Beekeepers Guided by Cold Weather Forecasts For some years past the Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agricul- ture has been assisting beekeepers by sending them forecasts of mild periods in the late autumn which are likely to be followed by cold and unsettled weather, in order that the bees may get a general flight as late in the season as possible, but be housed before un- favorable conditions set in. Forecasts are also issued in the spring to guide beekeepers in removing bees from winter quarters. These forecasts have been sent to individual bee- keepers on request, and there has been a systematic service of this character in New York State, carried out in co-operation with the Apiary Department of the State College of Agriculture. The scope of this work is to be enlarged so that beekeepers in any part of the country can have sent to them such forecasts. The Weather Bureau will make no charge for its services, but recipients will be ex- pected to pay the telegraph charges. When plans are more fully worked out detailed information as to the methods of obtaining the forecasts will be published in journals devoted to beekeeping. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5, 167. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2321 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society

75 YEARS AGO

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Abstract

as guidance to distribute warnings of gale force winds for a number of years, but has never been available in (40 mph or higher) over coastal North and South real time for forecasting. Carolina. The measurements from the SFMR provide a critical "What this new set of data provides is continuous addition to existing tools for wind speed measurements, measurement of wind speed over a large area," says said Powell. Dropwindsondes deployed from aircraft fly- NOAA hurricane wind field expert Mark Powell. "Based ing through and around a hurricane have been instrumen- on successful comparison to the observations such as tal in providing point observations within a storm, buoys and coastal weather stations, the data from the new sending information every half second. instrument were accepted by the HRD analysis system Winds measured at flight level (about 10,000 ft) by in real time and used by the National Hurricane Center." the U.S. Air Force and NOAA hurricane reconnaissance The technology in this experiment features a stepped aircraft are used in atmospheric models to estimate sur- frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR), a sensor built face winds. Estimating wind speeds from that altitude has by the University of Massachusetts and Quadrant Engi- resulted in as much as 20% uncertainty. By incorporat- neering in Amherst, Massachusetts, which is currently ing the SFMR wind speeds, scientists hope to reduce that flown aboard a NOAA hurricane hunter aircraft. The uncertainty to provide more accurate forecasts for coastal SFMR measures the signal returned by the ocean surface communities. beneath the aircraft as it is churned up by hurricane winds. "The SFMR gives us much more complete storm cov- This technology has been in use for research purposes erage at the surface than the sondes, and at a fraction of Beekeepers Guided by Cold Weather Forecasts For some years past the Weather Bureau of the United States Department of Agricul- ture has been assisting beekeepers by sending them forecasts of mild periods in the late autumn which are likely to be followed by cold and unsettled weather, in order that the bees may get a general flight as late in the season as possible, but be housed before un- favorable conditions set in. Forecasts are also issued in the spring to guide beekeepers in removing bees from winter quarters. These forecasts have been sent to individual bee- keepers on request, and there has been a systematic service of this character in New York State, carried out in co-operation with the Apiary Department of the State College of Agriculture. The scope of this work is to be enlarged so that beekeepers in any part of the country can have sent to them such forecasts. The Weather Bureau will make no charge for its services, but recipients will be ex- pected to pay the telegraph charges. When plans are more fully worked out detailed information as to the methods of obtaining the forecasts will be published in journals devoted to beekeeping. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 5, 167. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2321

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Nov 1, 1999

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