50 YEARS AGO

50 YEARS AGO whose responsibility is to maintain the air monitoring plained that ozone was chosen because it has become network/equipment, as well as collect, record, report, the biggest problem for this area when compared to and assure the quality of the data. He noted there are other pollutants. currently six pollutants that are monitored in the Mem- Howell said an equation will be derived that will phis urban area, including carbon monoxide, sulfur di- include several meteorological factors, including sur- oxide, nitric oxides, particulate matter, and ozone. face temperature, dewpoint, average cloud cover, sur- A description of each pollutant and its sources and face wind, and inversion strength. He noted this work effects was given, and pictures of the equipment that is also being derived from a similar experiment in the is used to monitor the concentration of these pollut- state of Alabama, where he spent time before arriving ants were shown. Howell announced that some recent in Memphis. It is his goal to test a forecast equation successes in the Air Pollution Control division include this summer and have forecasts available to the pub- having the lowest level of lead in 30 years and a re- lic by next summer. According to Howell, the forecast cent decrease in carbon monoxide levels. He said his would hopefully give some forewarning to residents main task for the next couple of years will be to put who experience respiratory problems and other ail- together a 24-h forecast of ozone levels in the city ments during periods of high pollution. Following a based on local meteorology and its known effects on question-and-answer session, the meeting was ad- the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere. He ex- journed.—Erik Proseus Soil Moisture Reporting by a Weather Bureau State Service The great drought of the early '30s focused attention on the importance of soil moisture to crop economy. While week-to-week rains are desirable, and, indeed, necessary for maintaining the moisture in the soil, the storage of such moisture from previous rains has more to do with crop success than the current rainfall. By the end of 1934 .. . the combination of lack of current rainfall and the exhaustion of soil moisture [in South Dakota] was only too plain [. . .] The question of crop prospects for the coming year was uppermost in the minds of the Agricultural College, chambers of commerce, grain elevator units, railroad and pub- lic utility companies, and the general public. The advantage of some foreknowledge was obvious. Since the Weather Bureau could not forecast the seasonal rainfalls, the only alternative was a survey of the depth and composition of the surface soil, especially as to moisture content and the availability of this moisture, down to hardpan all over the state. This was accomplished by the Bureau with the aid of the various units interested in crop yields. Next, we had observers send us a measurement of the depth of the moist soil at the close of each month. These monthly averages were published regularly in the Monthly Climatological Data. By compiling and thoroughly studying these reports, and knowing what grains and grasses require, the Bureau's representative was in position to make timely predictions every January thereafter on crop possibilities for the coming season [. . .] These January summaries and predictions were so useful that numerous business firms in the five north central states who had local offices in South Dakota would contact the Bureau for a copy of the January predictions and, at their own expense, would have enough copies printed and sent to their vari- ous local offices in the district to be used as a guide in carrying on their business with their patrons who depended upon agriculture for a livelihood. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 32, 216. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 1223 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society
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American Meteorological Society
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10.1175/1520-0477-82.6.1223
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Abstract

whose responsibility is to maintain the air monitoring plained that ozone was chosen because it has become network/equipment, as well as collect, record, report, the biggest problem for this area when compared to and assure the quality of the data. He noted there are other pollutants. currently six pollutants that are monitored in the Mem- Howell said an equation will be derived that will phis urban area, including carbon monoxide, sulfur di- include several meteorological factors, including sur- oxide, nitric oxides, particulate matter, and ozone. face temperature, dewpoint, average cloud cover, sur- A description of each pollutant and its sources and face wind, and inversion strength. He noted this work effects was given, and pictures of the equipment that is also being derived from a similar experiment in the is used to monitor the concentration of these pollut- state of Alabama, where he spent time before arriving ants were shown. Howell announced that some recent in Memphis. It is his goal to test a forecast equation successes in the Air Pollution Control division include this summer and have forecasts available to the pub- having the lowest level of lead in 30 years and a re- lic by next summer. According to Howell, the forecast cent decrease in carbon monoxide levels. He said his would hopefully give some forewarning to residents main task for the next couple of years will be to put who experience respiratory problems and other ail- together a 24-h forecast of ozone levels in the city ments during periods of high pollution. Following a based on local meteorology and its known effects on question-and-answer session, the meeting was ad- the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere. He ex- journed.—Erik Proseus Soil Moisture Reporting by a Weather Bureau State Service The great drought of the early '30s focused attention on the importance of soil moisture to crop economy. While week-to-week rains are desirable, and, indeed, necessary for maintaining the moisture in the soil, the storage of such moisture from previous rains has more to do with crop success than the current rainfall. By the end of 1934 .. . the combination of lack of current rainfall and the exhaustion of soil moisture [in South Dakota] was only too plain [. . .] The question of crop prospects for the coming year was uppermost in the minds of the Agricultural College, chambers of commerce, grain elevator units, railroad and pub- lic utility companies, and the general public. The advantage of some foreknowledge was obvious. Since the Weather Bureau could not forecast the seasonal rainfalls, the only alternative was a survey of the depth and composition of the surface soil, especially as to moisture content and the availability of this moisture, down to hardpan all over the state. This was accomplished by the Bureau with the aid of the various units interested in crop yields. Next, we had observers send us a measurement of the depth of the moist soil at the close of each month. These monthly averages were published regularly in the Monthly Climatological Data. By compiling and thoroughly studying these reports, and knowing what grains and grasses require, the Bureau's representative was in position to make timely predictions every January thereafter on crop possibilities for the coming season [. . .] These January summaries and predictions were so useful that numerous business firms in the five north central states who had local offices in South Dakota would contact the Bureau for a copy of the January predictions and, at their own expense, would have enough copies printed and sent to their vari- ous local offices in the district to be used as a guide in carrying on their business with their patrons who depended upon agriculture for a livelihood. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 32, 216. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 1223

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Jun 1, 2001

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