50 years ago

50 years ago impact variables (AIVs) (e.g., visibility, ceiling, turbu- Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Re- lence, and icing). The workstation will incorporate sponse Experiment in the tropical western Pacific. satellite, radar, profiler, and a local mesonetwork of Four of the systems were land-based and two were observational data. The analyses and forecasts will be deployed on ships. Among the four land-based sys- used to generate products designed for the aviation tems was one placed at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea, community and will help the FAA and the NWS provide in conjunction with the Pilot Radiation Observation better services. Experiment of the ARM program. This constituted an early test of the experimental configuration expected NASA Mission to Research Ignorosphere to be used when the ARM program begins its more general deployment of experimental equipment in The elusive uppermost layers of the earth's atmo- 1994 and 1995. sphere, which lie roughly between 40 and 110 miles above earth's surface, will be the target for a new Product to Improve Aviation Weather Services mission from NASA. The mission, called TIMED (Ther- A workstation designed to improve meteorological mosphere-lonosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and services to the aviation industry has been installed at Dynamics), will investigate the area that atmospheric the National Weather Service's Center Weather Ser- researchers sometimes call the "ignorosphere" to gain vice Unit, located at the Denver Air Route Traffic knowledge about the "skin" that lies between the life- Control Center in Longmont, Colorado. NOAA's Fore- sustaining lower layers of the atmosphere and outer cast Systems Laboratory's (FSL) Aviation Division space. This region, which includes the mesosphere implemented the PC-based workstation in early Feb- and lower thermosphere, absorbs ultraviolet radiation ruary 1993. from the sun. It has been difficult to study because it is The FSL feeds real-time meteorological data and too high for even the largest research balloons. It is still products to the workstation from Boulder, Colorado. dense enough, however, to cause a satellite to decay The data and products, called Aviation Gridded Fore- quickly from orbit. cast System (AGFS), are part of a program developed TIMED will consist of two nearly identical space- by the Federal Aviation Administration. The FSL, the craft in different circular earth orbits having inclina- National Centerfor Atmospheric Research's Research tions of 95° and 49°. The operating lifetime of each Applications Program (NCAR/RAP), and the Massa- spacecraft is 24 months. This time period will be chusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory sufficient enough to provide two full cycles of the are participants in the program, called the Aviation earth's seasons. Weather Development Program (AWDP), which has NASA has selected nine principal investigators to been in existence for about two years. The FSL will provide experiments for the mission. Six investigators develop the AG FS by generating analyses and gridded have also been selected as interdisciplinary scientists forecasts of state-of-the-atmosphere variables (SAVs) to study broad problems using data from the experi- (e.g., mass, momentum, and moisture) and aviation- ments. • Wind Rules Again in Tactics at Sea Wind has become an important factor in naval warfare, as it was in the days of sailing ships though for a different reason, Lt. Comdr. William C. Chambliss, U.S.N.R., points out in the June, 1943, issue of the U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings. In the old days, admirals maneuvered their fleets to the windward of their enemy if they could, because this "weather gage" gave them greater freedom of movement when the moment came to close battle. Now the situation is reversed: it is better to be to the leeward of the enemy because a direct head wind helps greatly in getting planes launched from, and landed on, a carrier's flight deck. The most exasperating thing that can happen to a carrier is to have a light wind dead astern. The fleet may advance to meet the enemy, but when the time comes to launch the planes the carrier has to turn around and run away from the scene of impending battle just as fast as she can go, until her planes are up. By that time she may be almost back to where she started from. That this is not at all an imaginary situation, Comdr. Chambliss shows by a most crucial example. In the Solomons, our ships must steam toward the northwest to find and fight the Japs. The wind in that region blows almost incessantly from the southeast. This favors Japanese carriers and handicaps our own.—S. S. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 24, 278. 1764 Vol. 74, Vol. 9, September 1993 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society
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Abstract

impact variables (AIVs) (e.g., visibility, ceiling, turbu- Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Re- lence, and icing). The workstation will incorporate sponse Experiment in the tropical western Pacific. satellite, radar, profiler, and a local mesonetwork of Four of the systems were land-based and two were observational data. The analyses and forecasts will be deployed on ships. Among the four land-based sys- used to generate products designed for the aviation tems was one placed at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea, community and will help the FAA and the NWS provide in conjunction with the Pilot Radiation Observation better services. Experiment of the ARM program. This constituted an early test of the experimental configuration expected NASA Mission to Research Ignorosphere to be used when the ARM program begins its more general deployment of experimental equipment in The elusive uppermost layers of the earth's atmo- 1994 and 1995. sphere, which lie roughly between 40 and 110 miles above earth's surface, will be the target for a new Product to Improve Aviation Weather Services mission from NASA. The mission, called TIMED (Ther- A workstation designed to improve meteorological mosphere-lonosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and services to the aviation industry has been installed at Dynamics), will investigate the area that atmospheric the National Weather Service's Center Weather Ser- researchers sometimes call the "ignorosphere" to gain vice Unit, located at the Denver Air Route Traffic knowledge about the "skin" that lies between the life- Control Center in Longmont, Colorado. NOAA's Fore- sustaining lower layers of the atmosphere and outer cast Systems Laboratory's (FSL) Aviation Division space. This region, which includes the mesosphere implemented the PC-based workstation in early Feb- and lower thermosphere, absorbs ultraviolet radiation ruary 1993. from the sun. It has been difficult to study because it is The FSL feeds real-time meteorological data and too high for even the largest research balloons. It is still products to the workstation from Boulder, Colorado. dense enough, however, to cause a satellite to decay The data and products, called Aviation Gridded Fore- quickly from orbit. cast System (AGFS), are part of a program developed TIMED will consist of two nearly identical space- by the Federal Aviation Administration. The FSL, the craft in different circular earth orbits having inclina- National Centerfor Atmospheric Research's Research tions of 95° and 49°. The operating lifetime of each Applications Program (NCAR/RAP), and the Massa- spacecraft is 24 months. This time period will be chusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory sufficient enough to provide two full cycles of the are participants in the program, called the Aviation earth's seasons. Weather Development Program (AWDP), which has NASA has selected nine principal investigators to been in existence for about two years. The FSL will provide experiments for the mission. Six investigators develop the AG FS by generating analyses and gridded have also been selected as interdisciplinary scientists forecasts of state-of-the-atmosphere variables (SAVs) to study broad problems using data from the experi- (e.g., mass, momentum, and moisture) and aviation- ments. • Wind Rules Again in Tactics at Sea Wind has become an important factor in naval warfare, as it was in the days of sailing ships though for a different reason, Lt. Comdr. William C. Chambliss, U.S.N.R., points out in the June, 1943, issue of the U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings. In the old days, admirals maneuvered their fleets to the windward of their enemy if they could, because this "weather gage" gave them greater freedom of movement when the moment came to close battle. Now the situation is reversed: it is better to be to the leeward of the enemy because a direct head wind helps greatly in getting planes launched from, and landed on, a carrier's flight deck. The most exasperating thing that can happen to a carrier is to have a light wind dead astern. The fleet may advance to meet the enemy, but when the time comes to launch the planes the carrier has to turn around and run away from the scene of impending battle just as fast as she can go, until her planes are up. By that time she may be almost back to where she started from. That this is not at all an imaginary situation, Comdr. Chambliss shows by a most crucial example. In the Solomons, our ships must steam toward the northwest to find and fight the Japs. The wind in that region blows almost incessantly from the southeast. This favors Japanese carriers and handicaps our own.—S. S. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 24, 278. 1764 Vol. 74, Vol. 9, September 1993

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Sep 1, 1993

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