50 Years Ago

50 Years Ago climatic influences can never be excluded even if the techni- 25 Years Ago cal means are highly developed. Knowledge of the climates of the theatres of war is necessary for understanding the events there. Weather and the Law I n th e sprin g of 32 8 B.C., Alexande r th e Grea t crossed ove r the Indus an d in summe r the Jhelu m River. In the Th e Colleg e of La w of th e Universit y of Arizona , Tucson , Punja b th e "Five-Strea m Country, " h e ha d th e wa y fre e t o all i s studyin g the possible legal entanglement s of weather India . However , th e greates t militar y leade r of antiquit y wa s modificatio n forth e Interior Department . In commentin g o n mastere d b y th e India n monsoo n an d wa s oblige d t o sto p his th e smal l but precedent-settin g contract ($13,400 ) Secre- victoriou s march. Th e S W monsoon prevented him from tar y of th e Interior Stewar t Udall said: "As w e advanc e in followin g his divin e ancestor s Heracle s an d Dionyso s into controllin g th e weathe r w e likewise becom e mor e deeply involve d in local , state , regional , national , an d eve n interna- th e fabulou s countr y "India." A climati c phenomeno n delim- tiona l aspect s of th e law. W e must kno w wha t laws now ite d th e first worl d empir e of history. reall y gover n th e rivers of th e skies , ho w the y migh t b e ap - Napoleo n Bonaparte, the greatest general of modern plie d an d interpreted , an d wha t ne w law s migh t b e needed. " times , wa s defeate d b y th e Russia n climat e in 1812 . O n Jun e 23rd , th e Frenc h arm y crosse d ove r th e Niemen . It is no t s o wel l know n tha t th e Frenc h arm y ha d suffere d muc h in th e Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 48, 355. continenta l summe r by heat an d scarcity of water . It wa s weakene d so muc h that it wa s hardly equal to the task ahead . O n Octobe r 18th, Napoleo n ordere d th e retrea t fro m Moscow . This particular autum n wa s not unfavorable in compariso n with the average climatic conditions, which, however , wer e no t know n t o th e Frenc h suprem e command . War Climatology O n Novembe r 4th, 1812, a sever e cold wav e struck with V. Conrad, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. copiou s snowfall . Thi s burie d th e luc k o f Napoleon . A famou s Synopsis paintin g b y Vassili j Vassiljevitc h Vereshtshagi n (wh o die d in th e Russia n wa r agains t Japa n in 1905 ) show s th e Russian Direct influences upon men are distinguished from the winter , the monotony of the landscape, and the conse- indirect ones which include the morbific agents favored by quence s for Napoleon' s army. various climates. Climatic influences upon transportation are discussed. Warfare on water and in the air is especially dependent on climate and weather. From historical ex- Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 23, 217-218. amples and from experiences of the author it is shown that Index to Advertisers AMS Publications, Preprints, etc. 576 Weather Satellites c2 Alden Electronics 595 Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain c3 American Institute of Physics 596 Thor's Legions c4 Belfort Instrument Company 612 Extratropical Cyclones 644 Campbell Scientific, Inc. 617 Eighth Conference on the Middle Atmosphere 649 Rotronics Instruments 618 Third Symposium on Global Change Studies 655 Office of Naval Research 627 Global Warming 659 Vaisala Met Systems 640 Tropical Cyclone Programme!Employ. Announcements 663 Los Alamos National Laboratory 641 The Environment Chart 664 A. Deepak Publishing 680 The Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory Computer Sciences Corporation 696 Fifth Conference on Mesoscale Processes 667 Kendall Hunt Publishing Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting 668 Radian Corporation/M.I.T. Press 730 Table of Contents: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Yankee Environmental Monthly Weather Review Northern Video Graphics 731 Table of Contents: Journal of Climate, 684 Setra Systems Journal of Applied Meteorology Iowa State University Table of Contents: Journal of Physical Oceanography 690 Penn State University 732 Climate Change 692 Scientific Technology, Inc. 733 NEXRAD 693 Trimedia Publishing, Inc./Solus Systems, Inc. Six Conf. on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography WMO Publications 748 Vol. 73, No. 5, May 1992 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society
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Abstract

climatic influences can never be excluded even if the techni- 25 Years Ago cal means are highly developed. Knowledge of the climates of the theatres of war is necessary for understanding the events there. Weather and the Law I n th e sprin g of 32 8 B.C., Alexande r th e Grea t crossed ove r the Indus an d in summe r the Jhelu m River. In the Th e Colleg e of La w of th e Universit y of Arizona , Tucson , Punja b th e "Five-Strea m Country, " h e ha d th e wa y fre e t o all i s studyin g the possible legal entanglement s of weather India . However , th e greates t militar y leade r of antiquit y wa s modificatio n forth e Interior Department . In commentin g o n mastere d b y th e India n monsoo n an d wa s oblige d t o sto p his th e smal l but precedent-settin g contract ($13,400 ) Secre- victoriou s march. Th e S W monsoon prevented him from tar y of th e Interior Stewar t Udall said: "As w e advanc e in followin g his divin e ancestor s Heracle s an d Dionyso s into controllin g th e weathe r w e likewise becom e mor e deeply involve d in local , state , regional , national , an d eve n interna- th e fabulou s countr y "India." A climati c phenomeno n delim- tiona l aspect s of th e law. W e must kno w wha t laws now ite d th e first worl d empir e of history. reall y gover n th e rivers of th e skies , ho w the y migh t b e ap - Napoleo n Bonaparte, the greatest general of modern plie d an d interpreted , an d wha t ne w law s migh t b e needed. " times , wa s defeate d b y th e Russia n climat e in 1812 . O n Jun e 23rd , th e Frenc h arm y crosse d ove r th e Niemen . It is no t s o wel l know n tha t th e Frenc h arm y ha d suffere d muc h in th e Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 48, 355. continenta l summe r by heat an d scarcity of water . It wa s weakene d so muc h that it wa s hardly equal to the task ahead . O n Octobe r 18th, Napoleo n ordere d th e retrea t fro m Moscow . This particular autum n wa s not unfavorable in compariso n with the average climatic conditions, which, however , wer e no t know n t o th e Frenc h suprem e command . War Climatology O n Novembe r 4th, 1812, a sever e cold wav e struck with V. Conrad, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. copiou s snowfall . Thi s burie d th e luc k o f Napoleon . A famou s Synopsis paintin g b y Vassili j Vassiljevitc h Vereshtshagi n (wh o die d in th e Russia n wa r agains t Japa n in 1905 ) show s th e Russian Direct influences upon men are distinguished from the winter , the monotony of the landscape, and the conse- indirect ones which include the morbific agents favored by quence s for Napoleon' s army. various climates. Climatic influences upon transportation are discussed. Warfare on water and in the air is especially dependent on climate and weather. From historical ex- Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 23, 217-218. amples and from experiences of the author it is shown that Index to Advertisers AMS Publications, Preprints, etc. 576 Weather Satellites c2 Alden Electronics 595 Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain c3 American Institute of Physics 596 Thor's Legions c4 Belfort Instrument Company 612 Extratropical Cyclones 644 Campbell Scientific, Inc. 617 Eighth Conference on the Middle Atmosphere 649 Rotronics Instruments 618 Third Symposium on Global Change Studies 655 Office of Naval Research 627 Global Warming 659 Vaisala Met Systems 640 Tropical Cyclone Programme!Employ. Announcements 663 Los Alamos National Laboratory 641 The Environment Chart 664 A. Deepak Publishing 680 The Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory Computer Sciences Corporation 696 Fifth Conference on Mesoscale Processes 667 Kendall Hunt Publishing Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting 668 Radian Corporation/M.I.T. Press 730 Table of Contents: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Yankee Environmental Monthly Weather Review Northern Video Graphics 731 Table of Contents: Journal of Climate, 684 Setra Systems Journal of Applied Meteorology Iowa State University Table of Contents: Journal of Physical Oceanography 690 Penn State University 732 Climate Change 692 Scientific Technology, Inc. 733 NEXRAD 693 Trimedia Publishing, Inc./Solus Systems, Inc. Six Conf. on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography WMO Publications 748 Vol. 73, No. 5, May 1992

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Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: May 1, 1992

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