Bulletin American Meteorological Society 6 7 1990. Together with the reports of IPCC Working rectorship of Joseph Smagorinsky. The scope of the Groups I (Science) and II (Impacts) it will form the laboratory's work has expanded to include investi- panel's first assessment report. This report will be gations of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena on submitted to the Second World Climate conference a wide range of scales. In 1968, the laboratory moved in Geneva, 12-22 November 1990. to Princeton and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Program (renamed in 1987 the Program in Atmo- Symposium held at Geophysical Fluid spheric and Oceanic Sciences) was established . The Dynamics Laboratory to Mark 20 Years first students entered the program in the fall of 1969. In the ensuing two decades, 39 Ph.D. students have of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences graduated, and entered the worldwide meteorological A symposium held 28-29 September 1989 at the and oceanographic research community. Princeton's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory marked the 20th anniversary of the university's grad- Many visitors joined the current and former faculty, uate and postdoctoral program in atmospheric and current students and postdocs, and other scientists at oceanic sciences. The program in atmospheric and Princeton and GFD L in an audience of approximately oceanic sciences is a collaborative effort between 100. Scientific presentations by alumni, papers rang- Princeton University and the National Atmospheric ing over observational, analytical, and numerical and Oceanic Administration's Geophysical Fluid Dy- modeling studies of a variety of geophysical phenom- namics Laboratory (GFDL). ena were presented. The symposium covered current research in the field and was an illustration of the GFD L began in Washington DC in 1955 with a extent of the program's influence on contemporary small group of scientists developing computer models meteorology and oceanography. • of the global atmospheric circulation under the di- Almost no station has escaped one or more crackups. At least ten persons, including six pilots, have lost their lives on the "weather 50 years ago. . hop" . Two of the passengers who were killed were official ob- servers, one army and the other navy; who were doubling either as radio operators or mechanics. At least one ground observer At a June 1939 meeting of the Society in Milwaukee, Arthur M. was seriously injured, walking into the propeller of a plane after Marks, Jr., of the U.S. Weather Bureau in Ely, had presented a paper mounting the instrument on the wing. There have been at least on "Reminiscences on 'APOB' Flights and Fliers." Excerpts from twenty-five crackups in which major damage to the plane was that paper were published in the January 1940 Bulletin. Following are suffered. In six of these the pilot, running into serious trouble, the first three paragraphs of those excerpts: jumpe d safely, the plane being totally wrecked. These accidents with the accompanying loss of lives and ships, form one of the Reminiscences on "APOB" Flights and Fliers main arguments, it is believed, for the substitution of radiosondes My remarks will be limited to airplane weather-observations in for airplane observations. continental United States. The investigation of temperature and humidity conditions in the air above the surface has been carried on in several ways up to the present, by kite, airplane, sounding balloon, and more recently, by the radiosonde. The use of the airplane for weather observations dates back to the World War, during which several experimental flights were made (Pensacola, 1917; San Diego, 1918). Later the Navy made many flights at Philadelphia, Norfolk, Lakehurst, Hawaii, Washington, Seattle, Penn State Acquires Weather Research Plane and from some ships. Early in 1928, in cooperation with the Army at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Md., the Weather Bureau first Through a grant of $68,000 from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Meteorology, Pennsylvania State University, has attempted to sound the upper air by this method. The program acquired a Piper Comanche twin-engine plane to be used in its research for synoptic regular daily flights, however, is comparatively re- into the behavior of the atmosphere. The plane has been equipped with cent. In 1931, the Weather Bureau, by contract with four com- every modern navigational aid. Dr. Charles L. Hosier, professor and mercial flying organizations, expanded its program to include the head of the department, and his associates have installed meteorological inland section of the country, while in Nov., 1931, Massachusetts equipment that will enable them to measure and record pressure, tem- Inst, of Tech. began daily flights at Boston. At four o'clock, E.S.T. perature, humidity, wind speed, liquid water content of clouds, at- each morning since July 1,1931, regular synoptic flights have been mospheric turbulence, electrical potential gradient, and other weather made at a network of stations, comprising Army, Navy and Weather factors. The plane is also equipped for aerial photographs and infrared Bureau stations. measurements of surface temperatures. The number of these flights has increased and then decreased Dr. Hosier and his research colleagues have been studying weather in this brief period. The proof of progress in meteorological meth- modification in the Appalachian mountain region for the past five years. ods is demonstrated well by the fact that in a brief 8 years the In addition to seeding and sampling clouds by airplane, the team has infant industry, aviation, has been superseded in the gathering of conducted radar studies of the formation and dispersion of clouds from data by the embryonic industry of ultra-short-wave radio. The the valley floor and from the top of one of the local ridges, and have cost of each flight has varied from around $14 to about $33 at checked changes in the amplitude and period of lee waves by releasing different locations and to different heights, the required elevation hundreds of instrumented and radar-tracked balloons. having varied from 14,500 feet in 1931 to 16,500 feet at present.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Jan 1, 1990
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