sidered along with accuracy and efficiency issues. Use eta coordinate. The numerics of the propagation of grav- ity-inertia waves and other issues are finally considered. of SLSI in the Canadian baroclinic spectral model is Cullen et al. present the numerical considerations then considered along with numerical experiments taken into account for the development of the new used for operational implementation using code opti- U.K. Meteorological Office unified model. In particu- mization and multitasking. The implementation of a lar, they dwell upon unusual features of this model high-resolution SLSI version in the ECMWF forecast such as the use of the Charney-Phillips grid in the model having a T213 horizontal resolution and 31 lev- vertical, development of a semi-implicit algorithm for els in the vertical shows that the method is viable and solving the fully compressible equations of motion, allows the use of a larger time step that enables the use along with using a monotone semi-Lagrangian advec- of higher spectral resolutions that improve the skill tion. Tests conducted appear to yield satisfactory results. score of their medium-range forecasts. Ritchie considers application of the SLSI method Miyakoda et al. use a coupled air-sea general cir- to global spectral models. Using first a spectral model culation model data assimilation to assess the improve- of the shallow-water equations the issue of energy ment of sea surface temperature forecast skill associ- conservation for long-term SLSI integrations is con- ated with El Nino and La Nina events. Issues such as the spinup behavior of the forecast and the predictabil- ity of the coupled GCM forecasts are addressed. They consider that while ensemble forecasts are necessary, a larger number of ensemble numbers is necessary to Polytechnic Institute of New York draw conclusions. A C-grid formulation of a primitive equation ocean circulation model is presented by Xu et al. The In May 1972 the legislature of the state of New York Coriolis terms are treated in a semi-implicit way. A passed a bill which stipulated horizontal divergence dissipation term is shown to that there be a merger between bette r results than two other lateral frictional the New York University parameterizations. School of Engineering and The spectral element technique—which can be clas- Science (including the Depart- sified as an h-p-type finite-element method that can ment of Meteorology and offset disadvantages of the spectral method by com- Oceanography) and the Polytechnic Institute of bining traditional geometrical flexibility of finite-el- Brooklyn. A merger agreement was reached in ement methods with rapid convergence rates of spec- April 1973, to be effective 1 September 1973. tral approximation techniques—is implemented on a The title of the new institution is the Polytech- spherical geometry for the shallow-water equations nic Institute of New York and its headquarters using a series of standard test cases by Haidvogel et are at 333 Jay St., Brooklyn, NY 11201. al. The results obtained confirm most of the expecta- tions. This, along with the fact that spectral elements The department will continue to offer general are ideally suited for application to parallel machines, courses in meteorology and will also specialize makes them a method with high potential. A problem in physical oceanography. It will continue the with inversion of linear operators required for implicit trend of the last several years in emphasizing the time-stepping schemes and a potential solution are common bases and methods of the two fields. For example, the undergraduate course formerly described. titled "Weather Analysis and Forecasting" will Use of accurate global ocean surface elevation data become simply "Analysis and Forecasting," and from satellites in the Los Alamos Parallel Ocean Pro- will encompass methods of analyzing both me- gram model allows computation of local and global teorological and oceanic data, and the forecast- changes of sea level and the effect of the error in pre- ing of weather and the state of the sea. Degrees dicting steric sea level changes. The work of Dukowicz offered will be the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. finds that overall global dynamic effects are entirely negligible in terms of changing ocean surface eleva- tion, thus justifying the Boussinesq assumption. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 54, 1012. Modeling the dynamical effect of subgrid-scale dynamics on the resolved scales via differential forms Vol. 79 , No. 10,, October 1998 217 4
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Oct 1, 1998
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