25 YEARS AGO

25 YEARS AGO America had been moderated since ancient times by dioxide; feedbacks between the atmosphere, the clearing of forests and agriculture, and this in turn had oceans, and land surfaces; and so forth. This changed made it more fit for European-type civilization. Ameri- forever a descriptive subject to one in which the laws can colonists such as John Adams, Edward Holyoke, of physics, chemistry, and mathematics could be ap- plied. The giants who led this advance were, among and Thomas Jefferson used this argument in defend- others, John Tyndall, Svante Arrhenius, and T. C. ing the desirability of America for settlement. Fleming Chamberland. The latter contributed considerations of points out, however, that there were skeptics who dis- agreed with this rosy picture of the climate and how it the role of the solid earth and oceans to the causes of was changing. ice ages. In the nineteenth century, prompted by such lead- Somewhat surprisingly, Fleming devotes an entire ers as Mathew Maury, Joseph Henry, and the chapter to the formerly popular and prolific writer Smithsonian Institution, systematic observations of the Ellswort h Huntington. This man, according to weather and climate were instituted, and this irrevo- Fleming, seems to have had a great influence on think- cably altered philosophical climate discourse and es- ing in the early twentieth century, and his writings tablished the foundations for the modern science of rekindled earlier ideas drawn from the Age of Enlight- climatology. Now it became accepted practice to con- enment and the theory of environmental determinism. These ideas were certainly evocative—such as the sult the climate record rather than ancient authorities power of climatic changes to cause changes in human or the memories of the elderly. occupations, habits, and even character—but they are The nineteenth century also witnessed the applica- generally not taken seriously anymore. tion of physical experiments and mathematical theory to the question of climate change; the role of carbon Fleming deals rather hastily with the enormous Climate and Food Production The World Meteorological Organization is giving increased attention to the crucial problem of world food production and climate fluctuations. Leading scientists from about 15 countries met in Vijk, near Stockholm, from 29 July-10 August for an International Study Conference on the Physical Basis of Climate and Climate Modeling. The confer- ence was convened by WMO and the International Council of Scientific Unions within the framework of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) and with support from the United Nations Environment Program. Special attention was given to the development of improved mathematical models of the atmosphere which can be used to assess the long-term response of the atmosphere-ocean-land sys- tem to changes in any of the basic factors which determine climate. Reports presented include those on experiments made with models to compute the effect of a change in solar radiation, an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and an increase in atmospheric pollution. [.. . ] In view of the growing economic and social impact of year-to-year variations in weather and of any long-term trends in climate, a major international scientific effort is called for to determine the fea- sibility of prediction of climate change. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, 1263-1264. Vol. 80,, No. 10,, October 1999 206 0 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society

25 YEARS AGO

Free
1 page

Loading next page...
1 Page
 
/lp/ams/25-years-ago-pjzgxGM2Vz
Publisher
American Meteorological Society
Copyright
Copyright © American Meteorological Society
ISSN
1520-0477
D.O.I.
10.1175/1520-0477-80.10.2106
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

America had been moderated since ancient times by dioxide; feedbacks between the atmosphere, the clearing of forests and agriculture, and this in turn had oceans, and land surfaces; and so forth. This changed made it more fit for European-type civilization. Ameri- forever a descriptive subject to one in which the laws can colonists such as John Adams, Edward Holyoke, of physics, chemistry, and mathematics could be ap- plied. The giants who led this advance were, among and Thomas Jefferson used this argument in defend- others, John Tyndall, Svante Arrhenius, and T. C. ing the desirability of America for settlement. Fleming Chamberland. The latter contributed considerations of points out, however, that there were skeptics who dis- agreed with this rosy picture of the climate and how it the role of the solid earth and oceans to the causes of was changing. ice ages. In the nineteenth century, prompted by such lead- Somewhat surprisingly, Fleming devotes an entire ers as Mathew Maury, Joseph Henry, and the chapter to the formerly popular and prolific writer Smithsonian Institution, systematic observations of the Ellswort h Huntington. This man, according to weather and climate were instituted, and this irrevo- Fleming, seems to have had a great influence on think- cably altered philosophical climate discourse and es- ing in the early twentieth century, and his writings tablished the foundations for the modern science of rekindled earlier ideas drawn from the Age of Enlight- climatology. Now it became accepted practice to con- enment and the theory of environmental determinism. These ideas were certainly evocative—such as the sult the climate record rather than ancient authorities power of climatic changes to cause changes in human or the memories of the elderly. occupations, habits, and even character—but they are The nineteenth century also witnessed the applica- generally not taken seriously anymore. tion of physical experiments and mathematical theory to the question of climate change; the role of carbon Fleming deals rather hastily with the enormous Climate and Food Production The World Meteorological Organization is giving increased attention to the crucial problem of world food production and climate fluctuations. Leading scientists from about 15 countries met in Vijk, near Stockholm, from 29 July-10 August for an International Study Conference on the Physical Basis of Climate and Climate Modeling. The confer- ence was convened by WMO and the International Council of Scientific Unions within the framework of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) and with support from the United Nations Environment Program. Special attention was given to the development of improved mathematical models of the atmosphere which can be used to assess the long-term response of the atmosphere-ocean-land sys- tem to changes in any of the basic factors which determine climate. Reports presented include those on experiments made with models to compute the effect of a change in solar radiation, an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and an increase in atmospheric pollution. [.. . ] In view of the growing economic and social impact of year-to-year variations in weather and of any long-term trends in climate, a major international scientific effort is called for to determine the fea- sibility of prediction of climate change. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 55, 1263-1264. Vol. 80,, No. 10,, October 1999 206 0

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Oct 1, 1999

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial