25 years ago

25 years ago As many as 17 aircraft, provided by the Navy, ESSA, and the Air Force, took part in the 1966 years ago Stormfury operations: a Navy Skywarrior to release silver iodide generators, and other planes, flying at levels from 1000 ft to above 60,000 ft, to observe and Project Stormfury record the seeding results. *Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 47, 842. Project Stormfury, the joint Department of Commerce - U.S. Navy hurricane research program, was in full operational order again this season from mid-August to mid-October, ready to attempt to modify these destructive tropical storms. Scientists, aircraft, and flight crews were on 72-hr alert, ready to proceed to years ago the staging base at Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, Puerto Rico, from which seeding missions could be flown over the western Atlantic. Open Discussion of Public Weather Service, Plans for this year called for intensified seeding Particularly in Relation to Defense Program experiments. Eyewall clouds surrounding the storm center were to be bombarded repeatedly with silver In the June issue of the Bulletin of the American iodide over an 8-hr period in an attempt to produce Meteorological Society, page 285, it was announced more pronounced, longer-lasting effects than were that an open discussion would be held following the obtained in the test of previous years. Also, participat- sessions of the American Meteorological Society ing aircraft were better equipped to measure and scheduled for September 25th and 26th in Chicago, record the results of seeding. for the purpose of considering future developments In addition to the eyewall experiments, investiga- affecting various meteorological interests. The an- tors planned a new study of the effects of seeding nouncement stated that the meeting would be open to hurricane rainbands—narrow, curved strips of heavy all who have a professional interest in the subject of precipitation found at some distance from the hurri- meteorological service in relation to the defense pro- cane eye. Th e changes in clou d structure and precipi- gram. Those interested in possible developments in tation caused by dropping silver iodide generators weather service resulting from the international situa- across a section of the rainband were to be observed tion and those desiring to make recommendations on and recorded. this subject, were particularly invited to attend. It was Project officials announced results of the tropical planned to have this open discussion at the time of the cumulus cloud seeding conducted last year. Clouds Chicago meeting of the Society in order that members were selected for the 1965 experiment with a statisti- who planned to attend the meeting might also attend cally randomized system. Twelve of these clouds the conference on defense matters. Since the Chi- were seeded, seven served as controls. The subse- cago meeting of the Society was cancelled, it is quent growth of the seeded clouds averaged 7500 ft, doubtful that the open discussion alone would bring while the unseeded control clouds grew an average of the desired representation of various meteorological 2300 ft. Th e probability of this difference occurring by interests. It therefor e appears necessary to cancel the chance is less than 1 in 1000. The hurricane eyewall open discussion for the present. and rainband experiments planned for 1965 were not conducted because no suitable storms moved through The discussion was intended to afford an opportu- the prescribed seeding area (north of Puerto Rico). nity for an exchange of views and recommendations Dr. Robert M. White, ESSA administrator, and in connection with meteorological matters pertaining Capt. E. T. Harding, director of the Naval Weather to national defense. Most meteorologists are familiar Service, have overall responsibility for the joint pro- with the restrictions placed upon the publication of gram. Dr. Joanne Simpson, chief of the Experimental weather reports from Europe, from portions of Canada Atmospheric Sciences, is director of the Project, and and from certain other regions involved in war . Details Cdr. J.W. Kidd, officer in charge of the Fleet Weather relative to dissemination of meteorological informa- Facility, Jacksonville Naval Air Station, is assistant tion from countries at war are, for the most part, director. Dr. Pierre St. Amand is project manager at confidential and Government representatives are there- the Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, Calif., fore not free to talk on all aspects of the subject. where the silver iodide pyrotechnic generators were Although no specific program was to be presented at designed and developed. the discussion, it was expected that some of the 1576 Vol. 72, No. 10, October 1991 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society

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Abstract

As many as 17 aircraft, provided by the Navy, ESSA, and the Air Force, took part in the 1966 years ago Stormfury operations: a Navy Skywarrior to release silver iodide generators, and other planes, flying at levels from 1000 ft to above 60,000 ft, to observe and Project Stormfury record the seeding results. *Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 47, 842. Project Stormfury, the joint Department of Commerce - U.S. Navy hurricane research program, was in full operational order again this season from mid-August to mid-October, ready to attempt to modify these destructive tropical storms. Scientists, aircraft, and flight crews were on 72-hr alert, ready to proceed to years ago the staging base at Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, Puerto Rico, from which seeding missions could be flown over the western Atlantic. Open Discussion of Public Weather Service, Plans for this year called for intensified seeding Particularly in Relation to Defense Program experiments. Eyewall clouds surrounding the storm center were to be bombarded repeatedly with silver In the June issue of the Bulletin of the American iodide over an 8-hr period in an attempt to produce Meteorological Society, page 285, it was announced more pronounced, longer-lasting effects than were that an open discussion would be held following the obtained in the test of previous years. Also, participat- sessions of the American Meteorological Society ing aircraft were better equipped to measure and scheduled for September 25th and 26th in Chicago, record the results of seeding. for the purpose of considering future developments In addition to the eyewall experiments, investiga- affecting various meteorological interests. The an- tors planned a new study of the effects of seeding nouncement stated that the meeting would be open to hurricane rainbands—narrow, curved strips of heavy all who have a professional interest in the subject of precipitation found at some distance from the hurri- meteorological service in relation to the defense pro- cane eye. Th e changes in clou d structure and precipi- gram. Those interested in possible developments in tation caused by dropping silver iodide generators weather service resulting from the international situa- across a section of the rainband were to be observed tion and those desiring to make recommendations on and recorded. this subject, were particularly invited to attend. It was Project officials announced results of the tropical planned to have this open discussion at the time of the cumulus cloud seeding conducted last year. Clouds Chicago meeting of the Society in order that members were selected for the 1965 experiment with a statisti- who planned to attend the meeting might also attend cally randomized system. Twelve of these clouds the conference on defense matters. Since the Chi- were seeded, seven served as controls. The subse- cago meeting of the Society was cancelled, it is quent growth of the seeded clouds averaged 7500 ft, doubtful that the open discussion alone would bring while the unseeded control clouds grew an average of the desired representation of various meteorological 2300 ft. Th e probability of this difference occurring by interests. It therefor e appears necessary to cancel the chance is less than 1 in 1000. The hurricane eyewall open discussion for the present. and rainband experiments planned for 1965 were not conducted because no suitable storms moved through The discussion was intended to afford an opportu- the prescribed seeding area (north of Puerto Rico). nity for an exchange of views and recommendations Dr. Robert M. White, ESSA administrator, and in connection with meteorological matters pertaining Capt. E. T. Harding, director of the Naval Weather to national defense. Most meteorologists are familiar Service, have overall responsibility for the joint pro- with the restrictions placed upon the publication of gram. Dr. Joanne Simpson, chief of the Experimental weather reports from Europe, from portions of Canada Atmospheric Sciences, is director of the Project, and and from certain other regions involved in war . Details Cdr. J.W. Kidd, officer in charge of the Fleet Weather relative to dissemination of meteorological informa- Facility, Jacksonville Naval Air Station, is assistant tion from countries at war are, for the most part, director. Dr. Pierre St. Amand is project manager at confidential and Government representatives are there- the Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, Calif., fore not free to talk on all aspects of the subject. where the silver iodide pyrotechnic generators were Although no specific program was to be presented at designed and developed. the discussion, it was expected that some of the 1576 Vol. 72, No. 10, October 1991

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Oct 1, 1991

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