per ocean as participants in voluntary ship-of-oppor- ally minority groups during the twentieth century, to tunity programs. Understanding the role of the ocean encourage students to pursue graduate study and ca- in climate change and making decadal climate fore- reers in atmospheric sciences and related fields, and casts will be greatly enhanced by observations planned to discuss issues that are particularly germane to tra- as part of an international Global Ocean Observing ditionally underrepresented groups in these fields. Mi- System. nority groups include Hispanic, Native Americans, and African Americans. Atmospheric Sciences at Howard University Ben Watkins, chief of the Satellite Services Divi- Supported by NOAA sion at NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Howard University hosted a student conference on Data, and Information Service, Camp Springs, Mary- "Celebrating Twentieth Century Pioneers in Atmo- land, moderated a session on the role of federal agen- spheric Sciences, Examining Twenty-First Century cies in increasing diversity in the atmospheric sciences. Challenges and Opportunities" on 20-22 March in Speakers discussed the current demographics, statis- Washington, D.C. Conference speakers included sev- tics, needs, opportunities, and challenges. eral distinguished scientists and meteorological re- John Cortinas, from NOAA's National Severe searchers from NOAA. Several of the NOAA speakers Storms Laboratory, conducted a panel session on mat- were also honored as outstanding minority scientists ters within government laboratories. Topics included and researchers during the conference. career advancement, responsibilities, mentoring, out- The purpose of the conference was to celebrate the reach, and stress management. Lisa Mozer from The achievements of atmospheric scientists from tradition- Weather Channel led a hands-on session devoted to First El Nino Cruise Completed 1 •Hjf l The research vessel Moana Wave of the University of Hawaii has completed the first cruise of the El Nino Expedition. As predicted in September of last year by K. Wyrtki and W. H. Quinn (see BULLETIN, 56, 397), El Nino condi- tions have developed off Peru and Ecuador in February and March 1975. The Moana Wave has observed a massive transgression of low salinity water across the equator jus t east of the Galapogos Islands; a thin layer of warm water with a salinity of less than 33% has advanced to 4°S. The area off Ecuador is also covered with warm water of low salinity, less than 34%. Weak upwelling is still present along the coast of northern Peru, to the south of Punta Parinas (4°S), but no cool water is advected northwest from this upwelling area as in normal years. More striking than the changes near the sea surface are the changes in subsurface layers. The 15°C isothermal layer is depressed along the equator to over 120 meters depth, and in some spots more than 140 meters depth, while in normal years it barely reaches a depth of 100 meters. The situa- tion indicates a very strong eastward flow of the equatorial undercurrent. The 15°C isother- mal layer is also depressed along the entire coast of Ecuador and Peru to between 100 and 140 meters depth, while normally it is near 50 meters depth. This depression represents an accumulation of warm water immediately below the upwelling area and will eventually lean to a cessation of the supply of cool water to the upwelling. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56, 611-612. 13 57 Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Jun 1, 2000
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