half of the century and the differences between then meeting was held at the National Weather Service of- and the second half. He went on to discuss inland fice in Ruskin. The attendance was approximately 10 flooding, technology improvements, and building people due to the time factor. The speaker for the meet- codes. After giving his forecast for the upcoming year, ing was William P. Roeder, chief staff meteorologist he entertained questions from the members and guests. at Patrick AFB. His topic of discussion was lightning University of South Florida Meteorology Professor safety. Arlene Laing and Johnson gave Jerrel a token of ap- Roeder emphasized the importance of using the 30/ preciation for taking time out to come and speak. 30 rule. The 30/30 rule deals with the time from the Given the combination of the large turn out, the "flash to bang." If less than 30 seconds, take cover. speaker, and the scholarship being awarded, this meet- After the storm has passed wait 30 minutes until re- ing was considered a huge success. suming activities outdoors. He mentioned some inter- The chapter held its first of two meetings for the esting statistics concerning those struck by lightning. month of April during the afternoon of the 14th. The For example, 10% of those struck by lighting do ex- Saltwater Sea to Fresh Water Lake Investigation of changes in the minerals and fossils buried in the sediment lay- ers of the Black Sea has led scientists of the Deep Sea Drilling Project to predict that when the next Ice Age occurs the Black Sea will revert to the fresh water lake. The three-week drilling expedition on the Glomar Challenger, completed in June, studied the geological processes that accompanied the Ice Ages of the past million years. Co-Chief scientists for the trip, Leg 42B of the seven-year-old project, were Drs. David Ross of the Woods Hold Oceanographic Institution and Yuri Neprochnov of the P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the U.S.S.R. Acad- emy of Sciences in Moscow. The Black Sea is of special interest in that during glacial periods it changed its character com- pletely from the salt water sea it is today to that of a fresh water lake. As the glaciers grew, they drew the water for ice formation from the sea, with resultant drops in sea level of from 90 to 150 m below the present sea level. Linked to the world ocean only through the shallow, narrow Bosporus, the Black Sea at these times became isolated from the Mediterranean and the heavy runoff from such rivers as the Danube turned the body of water into a fresh water lake. During the expedition three holes were drilled in the Black Sea, the deepest extending 900 m into the sea bed. Study of the sediments indicates three major cool-dry periods, perhaps correlat- ing with three of the four glacial stages recognized by land geological studies in Russia, western Europe, and the United States. The question of the fourth glacial stage is unresolved and awaits further and more detailed study of the cores recovered on Leg 42B. In all, more than 75% of the sediments are of lake origin, indicating that the present sea level is atypically high viewed over the average of the last million years. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 56, 1008-1009. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2097
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society – American Meteorological Society
Published: Sep 1, 2000
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