FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT ) is a key flowering integrator in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), with homologs that encode florigens in many plant species regardless of the type of photoperiodic response. We identified 10 FT homologs, which were arranged as five pairs of linked genes in different homoeologous chromosomal regions, in soybean ( Glycine max ), a paleopolyploid species. Two of the FT homologs, GmFT2a and GmFT5a , were highly up-regulated under short-day (SD) conditions (inductive for flowering in soybean) and had diurnal expression patterns with the highest expression 4 h after dawn. Under long-day (LD) conditions, expression of GmFT2a and GmFT5a was down-regulated and did not follow a diurnal pattern. Flowering took much longer to initiate under LD than under SD, and only the GmFT5a transcript accumulated late in development under LD. Ectopic expression analysis in Arabidopsis confirmed that both GmFT2a and GmFT5a had the same function as Arabidopsis FT , but the effect of GmFT5a was more prominent. A double-mutant soybean line for two PHYTOCHROME A ( PHYA ) genes expressed high levels of GmFT2a and GmFT5a under LD, and it flowered slightly earlier under LD than the wild type grown under SD. The expression levels of GmFT2a and GmFT5a were regulated by the PHYA-mediated photoperiodic regulation system, and the GmFT5a expression was also regulated by a photoperiod-independent system in LD. Taken together, our results suggest that GmFT2a and GmFT5a coordinately control flowering and enable the adaptation of soybean to a wide range of photoperiodic environments.
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera