Vacuoles play central roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. To better understand vacuole function and biogenesis we have characterized the vegetative vacuolar proteome from Arabidopsis thaliana . Vacuoles were isolated from protoplasts derived from rosette leaf tissue. Total purified vacuolar proteins were then subjected either to multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry or to one-dimensional SDS-PAGE coupled with nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS). To ensure maximum coverage of the proteome, a tonoplast-enriched fraction was also analyzed separately by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE followed by nano-LC MS/MS. Cumulatively, 402 proteins were identified. The sensitivity of our analyses is indicated by the high coverage of membrane proteins. Eleven of the twelve known vacuolar-ATPase subunits were identified. Here, we present evidence of four tonoplast-localized soluble N -ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), representing each of the four groups of SNARE proteins necessary for membrane fusion. In addition, potential cargo of the N- and C-terminal propeptide sorting pathways, association of the vacuole with the cytoskeleton, and the vacuolar localization of 89 proteins of unknown function are identified. A detailed analysis of these proteins and their roles in vacuole function and biogenesis is presented.
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