Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, The Biological Laboratories, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 021 38 This review surveys the signals, intermediate events, and effectors that connect GC swelling and shrinking to environmental conditions. GCs swell when protons are released, hyperpolarizing the plasma membrane (shifting the membrane potential to more negative voltages). This hyperpolarization drives K+ entry down an electrical gradient through inward K+ channels. C1- influx also occurs, presumably via Cl-/H+ symport or Cl-/OH- antiport. The entering ions are stored primarily in the vacuole along with malate, which is synthesized during stomatal opening. As intracellular osmotica increase, GCs take up water, balancing their water potential with that of their surroundings, and they begin to swell. Differential cell wall reinforcement bends the swelling GCs outward and widens the pore between them (Willmer, 1983; Taiz and Zeiger, 1991). Stomatal closure is not the reversal of opening. Anion release and/or Ca2+uptake depolarizes the plasma membrane (shifts the membrane potential to more positive values). This depolarization provides the driving force for K+ efflux through outward K+ channels. As levels of K+ and malate drop, GCs release water and shrink, relaxing the outward bend and closing over the substomatal cavity.
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera