Synthesis of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase Enzyme of Lysine Catabolism Is Concertedly Regulated by Metabolic and Stress-Associated Signals

Synthesis of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine... In plants, excess cellular lysine (Lys) is catabolized into glutamic acid and acetyl-coenzyme A; yet, it is still not clear whether this pathway has other functions in addition to balancing Lys levels. To address this issue, we examined the effects of stress-related hormones, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonate, as well as various metabolic signals on the production of the mRNA and polypeptide of the bifunctional Lys-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR)/saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme, which contains the first two linked enzymes of Lys catabolism. The level of LKR/SDH was strongly enhanced by ABA, jasmonate, and sugar starvation, whereas excess sugars and nitrogen starvation reduced its level; thus this pathway appears to fulfill multiple functions in stress-related and carbon/nitrogen metabolism. Treatments with combination of hormones and/or metabolites, as well as use of ABA mutants in conjunction with the tester sugars mannose and 3- O -methyl-glucose further supported the idea that the hormonal and metabolic signals apparently operate through different signal transduction cascades. The stimulation of LKR/SDH protein expression by ABA is regulated by a signal transduction cascade that contains the ABI1-1 and ABI2-1 protein phosphatases. By contrast, the stimulation of LKR/SDH protein expression by sugar starvation is regulated by the hexokinase-signaling cascade in a similar manner to the repression of many photosynthetic genes by sugars. These findings suggest a metabolic and mechanistic link between Lys catabolism and photosynthesis-related metabolism in the regulation of carbon/nitrogen partitioning. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png

Synthesis of the Arabidopsis Bifunctional Lysine-Ketoglutarate Reductase/Saccharopine Dehydrogenase Enzyme of Lysine Catabolism Is Concertedly Regulated by Metabolic and Stress-Associated Signals

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Publisher
American Society of Plant Biologist
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Plant Biologists
ISSN
1532-2548
eISSN
0032-0889
D.O.I.
10.1104/pp.103.026294
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In plants, excess cellular lysine (Lys) is catabolized into glutamic acid and acetyl-coenzyme A; yet, it is still not clear whether this pathway has other functions in addition to balancing Lys levels. To address this issue, we examined the effects of stress-related hormones, abscisic acid (ABA), and jasmonate, as well as various metabolic signals on the production of the mRNA and polypeptide of the bifunctional Lys-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR)/saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme, which contains the first two linked enzymes of Lys catabolism. The level of LKR/SDH was strongly enhanced by ABA, jasmonate, and sugar starvation, whereas excess sugars and nitrogen starvation reduced its level; thus this pathway appears to fulfill multiple functions in stress-related and carbon/nitrogen metabolism. Treatments with combination of hormones and/or metabolites, as well as use of ABA mutants in conjunction with the tester sugars mannose and 3- O -methyl-glucose further supported the idea that the hormonal and metabolic signals apparently operate through different signal transduction cascades. The stimulation of LKR/SDH protein expression by ABA is regulated by a signal transduction cascade that contains the ABI1-1 and ABI2-1 protein phosphatases. By contrast, the stimulation of LKR/SDH protein expression by sugar starvation is regulated by the hexokinase-signaling cascade in a similar manner to the repression of many photosynthetic genes by sugars. These findings suggest a metabolic and mechanistic link between Lys catabolism and photosynthesis-related metabolism in the regulation of carbon/nitrogen partitioning.

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