Plasmodesmata are plasma membrane-lined cytoplasmic “bridges” that span cell walls throughout plant tissues, providing higher plants with their unique supracellular nature ( Lucas et al., 1993 ). Primary plasmodesmata are formed during the culmination of plant-specific cytokinesis by entrapment of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) elements within cytokinetic cell plates ( Hepler, 1982 ). Later, when the cytokinetic cell plates transform into young cell walls ( Samuels et al., 1995 ), plasmodesmata retain their juvenile callosic nature ( Baluška et al., 2000a ), whereas ER elements become tightly appressed to form the so-called central rod or desmotubule (for a model, see Overall and Blackman, 1996 ). The latter element of plasmodesmata not only stabilizes their internal structure but it also limits their lumen and porosity. This is due to the fact that both the plasma membrane and desmotubule are densely covered with globular particles that are interlinked with spoke-like elements providing the dense sieve-like character of plasmodesmata. The molecular nature of plasmodesmata proteins remains unclear even after many years of devoted studies. Nevertheless, recent advances in immunofluorescence techniques allow identification of proteins that can be enriched at plasmodesmata. These proteins include actin, myosins, ER-based calreticulin, centrin, and calcium-dependent protein kinase
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