This study demonstrated that foliar infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 induced malic acid ( MA ) transporter ( ALUMINUM-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER1 ( ALMT1 )) expression leading to increased MA titers in the rhizosphere of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ). MA secretion in the rhizosphere increased beneficial rhizobacteria Bacillus subtilis FB17 (hereafter FB17) titers causing an induced systemic resistance response in plants against P. syringae pv tomato DC3000. Having shown that a live pathogen could induce an intraplant signal from shoot-to-root to recruit FB17 belowground, we hypothesized that pathogen-derived microbe-associated molecular patterns ( MAMPs ) may relay a similar response specific to FB17 recruitment. The involvement of MAMPs in triggering plant innate immune response is well studied in the plant’s response against foliar pathogens. In contrast, MAMPs -elicited plant responses on the roots and the belowground microbial community are not well understood. It is known that pathogen-derived MAMPs suppress the root immune responses, which may facilitate pathogenicity. Plants subjected to known MAMPs such as a flagellar peptide, flagellin22 (flg22), and a pathogen-derived phytotoxin, coronatine ( COR ), induced a shoot-to-root signal regulating ALMT1 for recruitment of FB17. Micrografts using either a COR -insensitive mutant ( coi1 ) or a flagellin-insensitive mutant ( fls2 ) as the scion and ALMT1 pro : β-glucuronidase as the rootstock revealed that both COR and flg22 are required for a graft transmissible signal to recruit FB17 belowground. The data suggest that MAMPs -induced signaling to regulate ALMT1 is salicylic acid and JASMONIC ACID RESISTANT1 (JAR1)/JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1)/MYC2 independent. Interestingly, a cell culture filtrate of FB17 suppressed flg22-induced MAMPs -activated root defense responses, which are similar to suppression of COR -mediated MAMPs -activated root defense, revealing a diffusible bacterial component that may regulate plant immune responses. Further analysis showed that the biofilm formation in B. subtilis negates suppression of MAMPs -activated defense responses in roots. Moreover, B. subtilis suppression of MAMPs -activated root defense does require JAR1/JIN1/MYC2. The ability of FB17 to block the MAMPs -elicited signaling pathways related to antibiosis reflects a strategy adapted by FB17 for efficient root colonization. These experiments demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to suppress a host defense response, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and host-mutualistic association. Glossary MA malic acid MAMP microbe-associated molecular pattern COR coronatine PGPR plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria SAR systemic acquired resistance ISR induced systemic resistance SA salicylic acid JA jasmonic acid ET ethylene LPS lipopolysaccharides PGN peptidoglycan cfu colony-forming units sqRT semiquantitative reverse transcription MeJA methyl jasmonate CFL cell free lysate HK heat killed qRT quantitative real-time EPS extracellular polysaccharide MTI MAMPs-triggered immunity MS Murashige and Skoog LB Luria-Bertani CV crystal violet OD 600 optical density at 600 nm DMRT Duncan’s Multiple Range Test
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