ROS can be detected directly by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR; or electron spin resonance), which can also be used to monitor changes in the chemical forms of the oxidizable transition metal ions implicated in ROS generation (Khan and Swartz, 2002 ; Jackson et al., 2004 ). Because of the low sensitivity of EPR, it is extremely difficult to measure highly reactive radicals directly in vivo. To overcome this sensitivity issue, a technique called spin trapping is often used. In spin-trapping experiments, ROS are allowed to react with specially selected trap molecules to produce less reactive and more stable species that can be readily detected by EPR (Khan et al., 2003 ). EPR is being widely used to detect ROS in plants (for a recent review, see Bacic and Mojovic, 2005 ). Generally, overlap between different signals in the EPR spectrum makes it difficult to quantitatively measure individual ROS in plants and therefore EPR is often used to assess total free radical formation (Muckenschnabel et al., 2002 ). The major advantage of EPR is its ability to measure and localize ROS in vivo. The latest progress in EPR techniques combined with the development of new spin traps (for review,
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