Lignin is a complex phenolic polymer that provides an embedding material for the cellulosic polymers of the secondary cell walls. It is also the major polymer in the middle lamellae between adjacent cell walls ( Plomion et al., 2001 ; Boerjan et al., 2003 ). Lignin provides the hydrophobic surface that allows plants to transport water to heights greater than 100 m ( Carder, 1995 ; Koch et al., 2004 ) and contributes to the mechanical strength that can support trees weighing more than 2,000 metric tons ( Fry and White, 1938 ). Lignin’s physical and chemical properties also serve as a barrier against the invasion of pests and pathogens ( Vance et al., 1980 ; Bhuiyan et al., 2009 ). For the forest products industries, lignin is the major barrier to efficient extraction of cellulose fibers for pulp and paper production. For the bioenergy industries, lignin is a barrier to saccharification for production of liquid biofuel ( Li et al., 2003 ; Chen and Dixon, 2007 ). Previous Section Next Section <h3>LIGNIN VARIATION</h3> While lignin is fundamental to growth and adaptation of herbaceous and woody plants ( Sarkanen and Ludwig, 1971 ; Boerjan et al., 2003 ;
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