In a previous review of male gametophyte development (McCormick, 1993 ), it was noted that the two areas posed by Mascarenhas (1975) as fruitful areas for future research were the following. What are the differences in the two cytoplasms that determine the different cell fates of the generative and vegetative cells? And what are the functions of pollen-specific proteins? Now, 10 years later, the genome sequences of Arabidopsis and rice have been completed. There are extensive EST databases for many plants and several data sets from microarray hybridizations. There are extensive resources for disrupting the functions of genes. The pollen research community has made significant progress toward a deeper understanding of pollen development using community resources as well as novel techniques developed specifically for the analysis of pollen. This review will provide an overview of these advances and prospects for the future, focusing on male gametophyte development, strictly defined as postmeiosis development, after the formation of the haploid microspores. Meiosis will not be discussed in detail. Anther development and the role of the tapetum in pollen development are discussed by Dickinson and Scott in this issue. The main features of pollen development are shown in Figure 1 ,
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