Plant growth inhibition is a common response to salinity. Under saline conditions, Shanrong No. 3 ( SR3 ), a bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) introgression line, performs better than its parent wheat variety Jinan 177 ( JN177 ) with respect to both seedling growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, the endogenous reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) was also elevated in SR3 relative to JN177 . The SR3 allele of sro1 , a gene encoding a poly(ADP ribose) polymerase ( PARP ) domain protein, was identified to be crucial for both aspects of its superior performance. Unlike RADICAL-INDUCED CELL DEATH1 and other Arabidopsis thaliana SIMILAR TO RCD-ONE (SRO) proteins, sro1 has PARP activity. Both the overexpression of Ta- sro1 in wheat and its heterologous expression in Arabidopsis promote the accumulation of ROS , mainly by enhancing the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, in conjunction with the suppression of alternative oxidase expression. Moreover, it promotes the activity of ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes and GSH peroxidase cycle enzymes, which regulate ROS content and cellular redox homeostasis. sro1 is also found to be involved in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show here that the wheat SRO has PARP activity; such activity could be manipulated to improve the growth of seedlings exposed to salinity stress by modulating redox homeostasis and maintaining genomic stability. Glossary ROS reactive oxygen species PARP poly(ADP ribose) polymerase RST RCD-SRO-TAF4 MV methyl viologen mART mono(ADP ribose) transferase SR3 Shanrong No. 3 JN177 Jinan 177 PEG polyethylene glycol RNAi RNA interference OE overexpression NA nicotinamide NOX NADPH oxidase DPI diphenylene iodonium AOX alternative oxidase KCN potassium cyanide SHAM salicyl hydroxamic acid POD peroxidase CAT catalase APX ascorbate peroxidase GPX glutathione peroxidase MDAR monodehydroascorbate reductase DHAR dehydroascorbate reductase GR glutathione reductase SCGE single-cell gel electrophoresis CDS coding DNA sequence TCA trichloroacetic acid VC vector control AsA ascorbate DHA dehydroascorbate MDA malondialdehyde
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