The plant hormone abscisic acid ( ABA ) regulates stomatal movement under drought stress, and this regulation requires hydrogen peroxide ( H 2 O 2 ). We isolated GUARD CELL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE-RESISTANT1 ( GHR1 ), which encodes a receptor-like kinase localized on the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis thaliana . ghr1 mutants were defective ABA and H 2 O 2 induction of stomatal closure. Genetic analysis indicates that GHR1 is a critical early component in ABA signaling. The ghr1 mutation impaired ABA - and H 2 O 2 -regulated activation of S-type anion currents in guard cells. Furthermore, GHR1 physically interacted with, phosphorylated, and activated the S-type anion channel SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED1 when coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and this activation was inhibited by ABA-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2) but not ABI1. Our study identifies a critical component in ABA and H 2 O 2 signaling that is involved in stomatal movement and resolves a long-standing mystery about the differential functions of ABI1 and ABI2 in this process. Glossary ABA abscisic acid H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide ROS reactive oxygen species PP2C protein phosphatases 2C RTK receptor tyrosine kinase RLK receptor-like kinase GUS β-glucuronidase GFP green fluorescent protein cRNA copy RNA MS Murashige and Skoog H2DCF-DA 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate Col-0 Columbia LRR leucine-rich repeat
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