Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature and are described in only a few plant species. One of them corresponds to a family of cathepsin D inhibitors (CDIs) described in potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), involving up to 15 isoforms with a high sequence similarity. In this work, we describe a tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) wound-inducible protein called jasmonic-induced protein 21 (JIP21). Sequence analysis of its cDNA predicted a putative function as a CDI. The JIP21 gene, whose protein has been demonstrated to be glycosylated, is constitutively expressed in flowers, stem, and fruit, and is inducible to high levels by wounding and methyl jasmonate in leaves of tomato plants. The genomic sequence of JIP21 shows that the gene is intronless and reveals the presence of both a methyl jasmonate box (TGACT) and a G-box (CACGT) in the promoter. In contrast to the presumed role of JIP21 based on sequence analysis, a detailed biochemical characterization of the purified protein uncovers a different function as a strong chymotrypsin inhibitor, which questions the previously predicted inhibitory activity against aspartic proteinases. Moreover, Egyptian cotton worm ( Spodoptera littoralis ) larvae fed on transgenic tomato plants overexpressing JIP21 present an increase in mortality and a delay in growth when compared with larvae fed on wild-type plants. These larvae belong to the Lepidoptera family whose main digestive enzymes have been described as being Ser proteases. All these results support the notion that tomato JIP21 should be considered as a chymotrypsin inhibitor belonging to the Ser proteinase inhibitors rather than a CDI. Therefore, we propose to name this protein tomato chymotrypsin inhibitor 21 (TCI21).
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera