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THE BULLETIN TO BE ENLARGED

THE BULLETIN TO BE ENLARGED than ordinarily occurs in an entire year. Also, that April and March average the most hours of measurable rain, but that September once surpassed all other months, having 121 hours or more than five days of rainfall. In the diurnal distribution of weather, it is generally understood that fog s occur oftenest in the morning, active winds in afternoon, and thun- der with heavy rains. The hourly distribution of rainfall may not be what the reader expects. It is given above for one typical month in each of the four seasons. (January figures are multiplied up to the 27-year basis.) It will be noticed that for all types of measurable rainfall combined, the rain frequency is lowest in late forenoon and early afternoon, but the time of highest frequency varies. In January the highest is around 8 to 10 p. m.; April rains are more evenly spaced than in other months but are most numerous at 5 to 7 p. m.; October rains oftenest at 3 to 6 a. m., with almost as many at 5 and 6 p. m. July combined rains are most frequent at 5 to 8 a, m. Hourly frequency varies 20 per cent in April ; 33 in July. The heavy rains of summer, considered alone, occur oftenest in the three hours between 10 p. m. and 1 a. m., with only a third as many at 6 to 9 a. m. May to September shows a similar distribution. FIGHTIN G TH E ICE STORM What an ice storm can do to the lines of the electric power companies was illustrated in December, 1929, when loads of ice caused a general breakdown of the distribution of power from Niagara Falls. On the lines of one power company fifteen great steel towers collapsed. All the power lines from the Falls to Buffalo were wrecked but one, and this had to be withdrawn temporarily from service in order that its icy coating might be melted by the process of sending a "heating current" through the wires; an expedient frequently resorted to in the electric power industry for preventing as well as for removing ice deposits. The repair crews had great difficulty in making their way over the roads, which were blocked at hundreds of points by fallen trees; and airplanes were used to good advantage in locating breaks. The electric railways use various cutting and scraping devices attached to the cars for removing ice from overhead trolley wires and third rails. A less common practice is to melt the ice from third rails by the applica- tion of calcium chloride fed from a tank car. It is only in recent years, however, that the engineering industries have taken up in earnest the problem of combating the serious evil of the ice storm. One enterprise in this connection lately undertaken by the National Electric Light Associa- tion, with the cooperation of the Weather Bureau, is that of gathering statistics of the frequency and amount of glaze deposits in different parts of the country. A frame set up outdoors at each of several Weather Bureau stations carries a series of wires of different diameters, and at the end of a storm the local observer measures the thickness of ice deposited on each wire.—C. F. Talman, in Wh y the Weather? (SS). A pile of excellent manuscripts of papers presented at the Pullman meeting awaits publication. With some adjustment of space allotments, without, however, reducing the general popular character of the BUL- LETIN, some of these papers can be taken care of. But an enlargement of the BULLETIN would be required to provide for more than a few. The addition of only four pages a month would be helpful, and the cost would be only $200. Mr. Robert E. Horton has already pledged a quar- ter of this sum, and Mr. Caleb M. Saville has expressed his willingness to be one of twenty to contribute $200. For every $20 received four pages will be added to one BULLETIN. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society

THE BULLETIN TO BE ENLARGED

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , Volume 13 (12): 1 – Dec 1, 1932

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Publisher
American Meteorological Society
Copyright
Copyright © American Meteorological Society
ISSN
1520-0477
eISSN
1520-0477
DOI
10.1175/1520-0477-13.12.242b
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

than ordinarily occurs in an entire year. Also, that April and March average the most hours of measurable rain, but that September once surpassed all other months, having 121 hours or more than five days of rainfall. In the diurnal distribution of weather, it is generally understood that fog s occur oftenest in the morning, active winds in afternoon, and thun- der with heavy rains. The hourly distribution of rainfall may not be what the reader expects. It is given above for one typical month in each of the four seasons. (January figures are multiplied up to the 27-year basis.) It will be noticed that for all types of measurable rainfall combined, the rain frequency is lowest in late forenoon and early afternoon, but the time of highest frequency varies. In January the highest is around 8 to 10 p. m.; April rains are more evenly spaced than in other months but are most numerous at 5 to 7 p. m.; October rains oftenest at 3 to 6 a. m., with almost as many at 5 and 6 p. m. July combined rains are most frequent at 5 to 8 a, m. Hourly frequency varies 20 per cent in April ; 33 in July. The heavy rains of summer, considered alone, occur oftenest in the three hours between 10 p. m. and 1 a. m., with only a third as many at 6 to 9 a. m. May to September shows a similar distribution. FIGHTIN G TH E ICE STORM What an ice storm can do to the lines of the electric power companies was illustrated in December, 1929, when loads of ice caused a general breakdown of the distribution of power from Niagara Falls. On the lines of one power company fifteen great steel towers collapsed. All the power lines from the Falls to Buffalo were wrecked but one, and this had to be withdrawn temporarily from service in order that its icy coating might be melted by the process of sending a "heating current" through the wires; an expedient frequently resorted to in the electric power industry for preventing as well as for removing ice deposits. The repair crews had great difficulty in making their way over the roads, which were blocked at hundreds of points by fallen trees; and airplanes were used to good advantage in locating breaks. The electric railways use various cutting and scraping devices attached to the cars for removing ice from overhead trolley wires and third rails. A less common practice is to melt the ice from third rails by the applica- tion of calcium chloride fed from a tank car. It is only in recent years, however, that the engineering industries have taken up in earnest the problem of combating the serious evil of the ice storm. One enterprise in this connection lately undertaken by the National Electric Light Associa- tion, with the cooperation of the Weather Bureau, is that of gathering statistics of the frequency and amount of glaze deposits in different parts of the country. A frame set up outdoors at each of several Weather Bureau stations carries a series of wires of different diameters, and at the end of a storm the local observer measures the thickness of ice deposited on each wire.—C. F. Talman, in Wh y the Weather? (SS). A pile of excellent manuscripts of papers presented at the Pullman meeting awaits publication. With some adjustment of space allotments, without, however, reducing the general popular character of the BUL- LETIN, some of these papers can be taken care of. But an enlargement of the BULLETIN would be required to provide for more than a few. The addition of only four pages a month would be helpful, and the cost would be only $200. Mr. Robert E. Horton has already pledged a quar- ter of this sum, and Mr. Caleb M. Saville has expressed his willingness to be one of twenty to contribute $200. For every $20 received four pages will be added to one BULLETIN.

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Dec 1, 1932

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