Air temperature measurement has inherent biases associated with the particular radiation shield and sensor deployed. The replacement of the Cotton Region Shelter (CRS) with the Maximum––Minimum Temperature System (MMTS) and the introduction of Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) air temperature observing systems during the NWS modernization introduced bias shifts in federal networks that required quantification. In rapidly developing nonfederal networks, the Gill shield temperature systems are widely used. All of these systems house an air temperature sensor in a radiation shield to prevent radiation loading on the sensors; a side effect is that the air temperature entering a shield is modified by interior solar radiation, infrared radiation, airspeed, and heat conduction to or from the sensor so that the shield forms its own interior microclimate. The objectives of this study are to develop an energy balance model to evaluate the microclimate inside the ASOS, MMTS, Gill, and CRS shields, including the interior solar radiation, infrared radiation, and airspeed effects on air (sensor) temperature under day and night conditions. For all radiation shields, the model air temperature for shield effects was in good agreement between shields while the uncorrected ““normal operating”” temperatures were more variable from shield to shield. The solar radiation loading ratio was dramatically increased with a corresponding increase in the solar elevation angle for all shields except the ASOS shield, and are ranked as Gill > MMTS ≈≈ CRS > ASOS. The daytime infrared radiation effects on air temperature were ranked as ASOS > Gill > MMTS > CRS, but the nighttime infrared radiation effects were not so large and were uniformly distributed among negative and positive effects on air temperatures. For the nonaspirated radiation shields (MMTS, Gill, and CRS), increasing ambient wind speed improved the accuracy of air temperatures, but it was impossible to reach the accuracy claimed by manufacturers when the in situ measurements were taken under lower ambient wind speed (<4 ∼∼ 5 m s −−1 ).
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology – American Meteorological Society
Published: May 8, 2000
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera