The present study investigates the roles of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) in the relationship between the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) and the following East Asian summer monsoon (EASM). The variability of the EAWM is divided into an ENSO-related part named EAWM EN and an ENSO-unrelated part named EAWM res . Corresponding to a weak EAWM EN , an anomalous low-level anticyclone forms over the western North Pacific (WNP) and persists from winter to the following summer. This anticyclone enhances southerlies over the coast of East Asia in summer. Hence, a weak EAWM EN tends to be followed by a strong EASM and vice versa. As such, a link is established between the EAWM EN and the EASM. The persistence of this WNP anticyclone may be mainly attributed to the sea surface temperature anomalies associated with the ENSO-related EAWM part in the tropical Indian Ocean and the extratropical North Pacific. In contrast, corresponding to a weak EAWM res , the anomalous WNP anticyclone is only seen in winter, and there is no obvious relationship between the EAWM res and the following EASM. Therefore, the observed EAWM–EASM relationship is dominated by the winter monsoon variability associated with ENSO. It is found that the EAWM EN –EASM relationship is modulated by the PDO. There tends to be a much stronger EASM after a weak EAWM EN during the positive PDO phases than during the negative PDO phases.
Journal of Climate – American Meteorological Society
Published: Jan 3, 2012
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