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Progress in Research in Synoptic Meteorology

Progress in Research in Synoptic Meteorology VOL . 31, No . 7, SEPTEMBER, 1950 23 7 E.PALME N University of Chicago EVOLUTIONAR Y CHANGES IN SYNOPTIC to a hemispheric scale. This has led to a consid- erable amplification of our ideas on the mechanism of the hemispheric pressure waves and the general techniques came as a result of the air- circulation. Various research projects carried out mass and frontal concepts introduced by in the U. S. on divergence, non-geostrophic flow the Norwegian School of meteorologists just about and vertical motions have considerably improved 30 years ago. This early synoptic work was pri- our knowledge of the detailed mechanism of pres- marily concentrated on surface and indirect three- sure changes and atmospheric disturbances. As a dimensional analysis, and upon the development result of other researches concerning the mech- of the kinematic and dynamic rules which form anism of the general circulation the long-wave and the backbone of modern short-range forecasting. vorticity concepts have been enlarged and the In Central Europe at the same time, attention was structure and behavior of the strong upper wester- focussed on the behavior of the higher atmosphere, lies ("jet stream") have been brought in as a new and upper-air forecasting tools, including the important fact in meteorology. Another impor- "steering principle," were developed even before tant project carried out in the U . S. after the War upper-air data became available on a daily basis. is a large investigation of thunderstorms; the in- Serial meteorograph ascents carried out for the vestigation has disclosed many important new first time in 1928 were later on developed into facts about the detailed structure of convective "swarm ascents" made through cooperation of phenomena. several countries in collaboration with the Interna- The increased network of observations in the tional Aerological Commission; these synoptic- tropics during and after the War has shown the aerological investigations verified the frontal the- existence of certain synoptic systems previously ory and contributed much to our knowledge of the unrecognized. It is obvious that tropical meteor- three-dimensional structure and flow patterns of ology now is in a stage of rapid progress. Among the air in the free atmosphere. Advances in elec- practical results of this work the great improve- tronics in the 1930's led gradually to the develop- ment in hurricane forecasting should be men- ment of radiosondes, making it possible to use tioned. three-dimensional analysis in daily work. Most major advances in synoptic meteorology Hand-in-hand with the development of air-mass have naturally paralleled increases in observational analysis went thermodynamic investigations, par- data; this emphasizes that efficiency of research ticularly of stability. Use of isentropic analysis, in the future depends largely upon effective dis- especially in the U. S. A., contributed much to the tribution of data to interested institutions, espe- understanding of formation of atmospheric vor- tices and their role in the general circulation. In- cially universities. In this field very much still has creased observations over large areas led to the to be done on international bases, since as it is now concept of "zonal index" and long-range forecast- extremely difficult, sometimes almost impossible, ing techniques, and to the practical development for scientists working in smaller institutions in of the long-wave theory. the field of synoptic meteorology to get sufficient During and since the late War extensive use of data in useful form. The expense of proper and radar, RDF, and aircraft reconnaissance, with the rapid distribution of synoptic material would in establishment of a network of weather ships, made any case be very small compared with the expense * Summary of talk at the St. Louis meeting of the it possible to extend the daily upper-air analysis of making the observations. American Meteorological Society on 6 January 1950. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society American Meteorological Society

Progress in Research in Synoptic Meteorology

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society , Volume 31 (7): 1 – Sep 1, 1950

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Publisher
American Meteorological Society
Copyright
Copyright © American Meteorological Society
ISSN
1520-0477
eISSN
1520-0477
DOI
10.1175/1520-0477-31.7.237
Publisher site
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Abstract

VOL . 31, No . 7, SEPTEMBER, 1950 23 7 E.PALME N University of Chicago EVOLUTIONAR Y CHANGES IN SYNOPTIC to a hemispheric scale. This has led to a consid- erable amplification of our ideas on the mechanism of the hemispheric pressure waves and the general techniques came as a result of the air- circulation. Various research projects carried out mass and frontal concepts introduced by in the U. S. on divergence, non-geostrophic flow the Norwegian School of meteorologists just about and vertical motions have considerably improved 30 years ago. This early synoptic work was pri- our knowledge of the detailed mechanism of pres- marily concentrated on surface and indirect three- sure changes and atmospheric disturbances. As a dimensional analysis, and upon the development result of other researches concerning the mech- of the kinematic and dynamic rules which form anism of the general circulation the long-wave and the backbone of modern short-range forecasting. vorticity concepts have been enlarged and the In Central Europe at the same time, attention was structure and behavior of the strong upper wester- focussed on the behavior of the higher atmosphere, lies ("jet stream") have been brought in as a new and upper-air forecasting tools, including the important fact in meteorology. Another impor- "steering principle," were developed even before tant project carried out in the U . S. after the War upper-air data became available on a daily basis. is a large investigation of thunderstorms; the in- Serial meteorograph ascents carried out for the vestigation has disclosed many important new first time in 1928 were later on developed into facts about the detailed structure of convective "swarm ascents" made through cooperation of phenomena. several countries in collaboration with the Interna- The increased network of observations in the tional Aerological Commission; these synoptic- tropics during and after the War has shown the aerological investigations verified the frontal the- existence of certain synoptic systems previously ory and contributed much to our knowledge of the unrecognized. It is obvious that tropical meteor- three-dimensional structure and flow patterns of ology now is in a stage of rapid progress. Among the air in the free atmosphere. Advances in elec- practical results of this work the great improve- tronics in the 1930's led gradually to the develop- ment in hurricane forecasting should be men- ment of radiosondes, making it possible to use tioned. three-dimensional analysis in daily work. Most major advances in synoptic meteorology Hand-in-hand with the development of air-mass have naturally paralleled increases in observational analysis went thermodynamic investigations, par- data; this emphasizes that efficiency of research ticularly of stability. Use of isentropic analysis, in the future depends largely upon effective dis- especially in the U. S. A., contributed much to the tribution of data to interested institutions, espe- understanding of formation of atmospheric vor- tices and their role in the general circulation. In- cially universities. In this field very much still has creased observations over large areas led to the to be done on international bases, since as it is now concept of "zonal index" and long-range forecast- extremely difficult, sometimes almost impossible, ing techniques, and to the practical development for scientists working in smaller institutions in of the long-wave theory. the field of synoptic meteorology to get sufficient During and since the late War extensive use of data in useful form. The expense of proper and radar, RDF, and aircraft reconnaissance, with the rapid distribution of synoptic material would in establishment of a network of weather ships, made any case be very small compared with the expense * Summary of talk at the St. Louis meeting of the it possible to extend the daily upper-air analysis of making the observations. American Meteorological Society on 6 January 1950.

Journal

Bulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyAmerican Meteorological Society

Published: Sep 1, 1950

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