The performance of a modified version of the snow scheme included in the Interactions between Surface––Biosphere––Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface scheme, which was operationally implemented into the regional weather forecast system at the Canadian Meteorological Centre, is examined in this study. Stand-alone verification tests conducted prior to the operational implementation showed that ISBA's new snow package was able to realistically reproduce the main characteristics of a snow cover, such as snow water equivalent and density, for five winter datasets taken at Col de Porte, France, and at Goose Bay, Newfoundland, Canada. A number of modifications to ISBA's snow model (i.e., new liquid water reservoir in the snowpack, new formulation of snow density, and melting effect of incident rainfall on the snowpack) were found to improve the numerical representation of snow characteristics. Objective scores for the fully interactive preimplementation tests carried out with the Canadian regional weather forecast model indicated that ISBA's improved snow scheme only had a minor impact on the model's ability to predict atmospheric circulation. The objective scores revealed that only a thin atmospheric layer above snow-covered surfaces was influenced by the change of land surface scheme, and that over these regions the essential behavior of the atmospheric model was not significantly altered by improvements to the treatment of snow cover. It was shown that this lack of response was most likely related to the treatment of the snow cover fraction in each atmospheric model grid tile. The estimation of snow cover fraction relied on simple formulations that were dependent on poorly known parameters, such as the fractional coverage of vegetation. Results showed that uncertainties of only 15%% in vegetation fractional coverage could be responsible for uncertainties of as much as 1––1.5 K in screen-level air temperature. This indicates that some care must be exercised in the specification of vegetation and snow cover fractional coverage.
Journal of Hydrometeorology – American Meteorological Society
Published: Apr 12, 2002
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera